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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-100716-7.00019-2

Use of nanostructured materials in implants

01 Jan 2018-pp 481-501
Abstract: Biomaterials play a crucial role in regenerative medicine, which aims to restore and reinstate lost/failed tissues or organs in the human body. Biomaterials are three dimensional temporary substrates which help in the development of new tissue and organization. Mimicking the characteristics of natural bone is challenging and those biomaterials which posses that property serves beneficial and also helps in the speedy recovery of the patient. These characteristics are of nanoscale regime and helps in wounding healing and tissue regeneration in the most effective way. In this chapter the development of nanostructured biomaterials, nanosurface modifications and nanoscaffolds has been discussed in detail. The different application of these bulk and surface modified nanomaterials has been convened. In conclusion, the nanostructured biomaterials is an emerging area of research and the application of these materials can improve the performance and longevity of the implants and at the same time pave way for the development of new technologies in the future. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MSEC.2020.111285
Abstract: Hybrid implants combine both Titanium (Ti) and Magnesium (Mg) are prevalent nowadays. The long-term implications of Ti and Mg implants within the human body are not yet fully understood. Many implant failure cases due to inflammation, allergic responses, and aspect loosening have been reported frequently. Particles generated through daily wear and tear of implants may worsen the situation by causing acute complications. An in-depth understanding of the behavior of metal particles with human osteoblasts is necessary. In this study, a novel and systematic attempt was made to understand the effects of different concentrations of Ti and Mg particles to the osteoblastic SAOS2 cell: toxicity, alterations to mitochondria, and changes to the specific gene and protein expression. Ti particles were found toxic to SAOS2 cells at different dosages, while Mg particles at lower concentrations could improve cell viability. To understand this phenomenon better, we have measured cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell apoptosis & necrosis percentage. We also have checked the mitochondrial structure with transmission electron microscope (TEM), and mitochondrial function using Tetramethyl rhodamine, ethyl ester staining (TMRE). NDUFB6, SDHC, and ATP5F1 were the essential mitochondrial genes involved in the ROS production and ATP production. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were implemented to check the regulations of these related genes. more

9 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JKSUS.2019.01.006
Abstract: In the 21st century, energy demand and the attendant environmental degradation, are among the most challenging issues. The concern is due to the high dependence, globally on fossil fuels as a form of energy generation. Over 6.5 billion people worldwide require approximately 13 Terawatts of energy for their day-to-day needs. In order to achieve the required energy demand, there is a need to diversify into other forms of energy; in this case, renewable energy. In so doing, there is the need to study, extensively, alternative materials and sources needed for energy generation, storage, distribution and application. There has been a significant advancement in energy generation, conversion and storage, such as fuel cells and solar cells, photovoltaic cells, supercapacitors, batteries, etc. The emergence of nanostructured and composite materials has resulted in some significant contributions towards the improvement in the energy industry development. Renewable energy, such as wind and solar energies, depend considerably, on the environmental conditions, which are not always stable. Hence, in order to harness the energy from these sources and to adequately store such energy, there is a need for a high-performance energy conversion and storage system for the energy generation process. In this regard, carbon nanomaterials, metallic sulphides, titanium oxide and many other nanostructured materials have been studied, to a large extent, for energy conversions and storage devices. The importance of nanostructured and composite materials has shown, from researches, to resolve the issues surrounding energy from generation to storage. more

Topics: Energy transformation (64%), Renewable energy (61%), Electricity generation (55%) more

8 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PMATSCI.2008.06.004
Abstract: The field of biomaterials has become a vital area, as these materials can enhance the quality and longevity of human life and the science and technology associated with this field has now led to multi-million dollar business. The paper focuses its attention mainly on titanium-based alloys, even though there exists biomaterials made up of ceramics, polymers and composite materials. The paper discusses the biomechanical compatibility of many metallic materials and it brings out the overall superiority of Ti based alloys, even though it is costlier. As it is well known that a good biomaterial should possess the fundamental properties such as better mechanical and biological compatibility and enhanced wear and corrosion resistance in biological environment, the paper discusses the influence of alloy chemistry, thermomechanical processing and surface condition on these properties. In addition, this paper also discusses in detail the various surface modification techniques to achieve superior biocompatibility, higher wear and corrosion resistance. Overall, an attempt has been made to bring out the current scenario of Ti based materials for biomedical applications. more

Topics: Biomaterial (52%)

3,382 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COSSMS.2007.08.004
Jan M. Macak1, Hiroaki Tsuchiya1, Andrei Ghicov1, Kouji Yasuda1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The present paper gives an overview and review on self-organized TiO2 nanotube layers and other transition metal oxide tubular structures grown by controlled anodic oxidation of a metal substrate We describe mechanistic aspects of the tube growth and discuss the electrochemical conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to synthesize these layers Key properties of these highly ordered, high aspect ratio tubular layers are discussed In the past few years, a wide range of functional applications of the layers have been explored ranging from photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, electrochromic effects over using the material as a template or catalyst support to applications in the biomedical field A comprehensive view on state of the art is provided more

Topics: Electrochromism (54%)

1,139 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00020-4
01 Jul 1999-Biomaterials
Abstract: Osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) was investigated in vitro. Osteoblast adhesion to nanophase alumina and titania in the absence of serum from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was significantly (P < 0.01) less than osteoblast adhesion to alumina and titania in the presence of serum. In the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum in DMEM osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina (23 nm grain size) and titania (32 nm grain size) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than on conventional alumina (177 nm grain size) and titania (2.12 microm grain size), respectively, after 1, 2, and 4 h. Further investigation of the dependence of osteoblast adhesion on alumina and titania grain size indicated the presence of a critical grain size for osteoblast adhesion between 49 and 67 nm for alumina and 32 and 56 nm for titania. The present study provides evidence of the ability of nanophase alumina and titania to simulate material characteristics (such as surface grain size) of physiological bone that enhance protein interactions (such as adsorption, configuration, bioactivity, etc.) and subsequent osteoblast adhesion. more

Topics: Adhesion (52%)

875 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/37/9/R02
Pierre Fauchais1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article intends to summarize our actual knowledge in plasma spraying with an emphasis on the points where work is still in progress. It presents successively: the plasma torches with the resulting plasma jets and their interactions with the surrounding environment; the powder injection with the heat, momentum and mass transfers between particles and first plasma jets and then plasma plume; the particles flattening and solidification, forming splats which then layer to form the coating; the latest developments related to the production of plasma sprayed finely structured coatings. more

Topics: Suspension plasma spray (61%)

631 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COLSURFB.2003.12.004
Laura A. Smith1, Peter X. Ma1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With the ability to form nano-fibrous structures, a drive to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and form scaffolds that are an artificial extracellular matrix suitable for tissue formation has begun. These nano-fibrous scaffolds attempt to mimic collagen, a natural extracellular matrix component, and could potentially provide a better environment for tissue formation in tissue engineering systems. Three different approaches toward the formation of nano-fibrous materials have emerged: self-assembly, electrospinning and phase separation. Each of these approaches is very different and has a unique set of characteristics, which lends to its development as a scaffolding system. For instance, self-assembly can generate small diameter nano-fibers in the lowest end of the range of natural extracellular matrix collagen, while electrospinning has only generated large diameter nano-fibers on the upper end of the range of natural extracellular matrix collagen. Phase separation, on the other hand, has generated nano-fibers in the same range as natural extracellular matrix collagen and allows for the design of macropore structures. These attempts at an artificial extracellular matrix have the potential to accommodate cells and guide their growth and subsequent tissue regeneration. more

572 Citations

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