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Thomas J. McKrell

Bio: Thomas J. McKrell is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Boiling & Nanofluid. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 60 publications receiving 3711 citations.

Papers published on a yearly basis

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE) as mentioned in this paper was held in 1998, where the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids" was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady state methods, and optical methods.
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

942 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE) as discussed by the authors was held in 1998, where the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids" was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady state methods, and optical methods.
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

881 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, high-speed video and infrared thermometry were used to obtain time and space-resolved information on bubble nucleation and heat transfer in pool boiling of water.

268 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on the critical heat flux (CHF) of water were examined using engineered surfaces and the results showed that porosity had little effect on the smooth non-porous surface CHF.
Abstract: The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on the critical heat flux (CHF) of water were examined using engineered surfaces. Values explored were 0, 5, 10, and 15 μm for Rz (roughness), 110° for static contact angle (wettability), and 0 and 50% for pore volume fraction. The porous hydrophilic surface enhanced CHF by 50%–60%, while the porous hydrophobic surface resulted in a reduction of CHF by 97%. Wettability had little effect on the smooth non-porous surface CHF. Surface roughness (Ra, Rq, Rz) had no effect on CHF within the limit of this database.

266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the quenching curves for small (∼1 cm) metallic spheres exposed to pure water and water-based nanofluids with alumina, silica and diamond nanoparticles at low concentrations (⩽0.1vol%) were acquired experimentally.

188 citations


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TL;DR: In this article, a review of thermal energy storage system design methodologies and the factors to be considered at different hierarchical levels for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is presented.

1,031 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE) as discussed by the authors was held in 1998, where the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids" was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady state methods, and optical methods.
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

881 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most relevant sources of nanoplastics are described and some insights into their fate once released into the environment are offered, including the most prominent effects of these small particulates, while identifying the key challenges scientists currently face in the research of nanopLastics in the environment.

699 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nanofluids have seen enormous growth in popularity since they were proposed by Choi in 1995 as mentioned in this paper, and there were nearly 700 research articles where the term nanofluid was used in the title, showing rapid growth from 2006 (175) and 2001 (10).
Abstract: Nanofluids—a simple product of the emerging world of nanotechnology—are suspensions of nanoparticles (nominally 1–100 nm in size) in conventional base fluids such as water, oils, or glycols. Nanofluids have seen enormous growth in popularity since they were proposed by Choi in 1995. In the year 2011 alone, there were nearly 700 research articles where the term nanofluid was used in the title, showing rapid growth from 2006 (175) and 2001 (10). The first decade of nanofluid research was primarily focused on measuring and modeling fundamental thermophysical properties of nanofluids (thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient). Recent research, however, explores the performance of nanofluids in a wide variety of other applications. Analyzing the available body of research to date, this article presents recent trends and future possibilities for nanofluids research and suggests which applications will see the most significant improvement from employing nanofluids.

679 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nanofluids are a new class of nanotechnology-based heat transfer fluids engineered by dispersing and stably suspending nanoparticles with typical length on the order of 1-50 nm in traditional heat transfer fluid.
Abstract: Nanofluids are a new class of nanotechnology-based heat transfer fluids engineered by dispersing and stably suspending nanoparticles with typical length on the order of 1-50 nm in traditional heat transfer fluids. For the past decade, pioneering scientists and engineers have made phenomenal discoveries that a very small amount (<1 vol %) of guest nanoparticles can provide dramatic improvements in the thermal properties of the host fluids. For example, some nanofluids exhibit superior thermal properties such as anomalously high thermal conductivity at low nanoparticle concentrations, strong temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity, a nonlinear relationship between thermal conductivity and concentration, and a threefold increase in the critical heat flux at a small particle concentration of the order of 10 ppm. Nanofluids are of great scientific interest because these unprecedented thermal transport phenomena surpass the fundamental limits of conventional macroscopic theories of suspensions. Therefore, numerous mechanisms and models have been proposed to account for these unexpected, intriguing thermal properties of nanofluids. These discoveries also show that nanofluids technology can provide exciting new opportunities to develop nanotechnology-based coolants for a variety of innovative engineering and medical applications. As a result, the study of nanofluids has emerged as a new field of scientific research and innovative applications. Hence, the subject of nanofluids is of great interest worldwide for basic and applied research. This paper highlights recent advances in this new field of research and shows future directions in nanofluids research through which the vision of nanofluids can be turned into reality.

568 citations