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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-9554-7_60

Analysis of Air Quality Index During Lockdown: A Case of Ludhiana District-Punjab

02 Mar 2021-pp 671-681
Abstract: Just after the COVID-19 pandemic, a national lockout is initially enforced in India from March 24 to April 14, 2020, for three weeks and prolonged until May 31, 2020. Because of the mandatory restrictions, emission levels across the country decelerated dramatically during the first very few days. In this paper, the air quality index (AQI) of Ludhiana city, Punjab, has been investigated during the pre- and post-lockdown period. The air quality data of pollutant parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3, and NH3) has been collected from authorized Punjab Agriculture University (PAU), Ludhiana monitoring station of National Air Quality Index (NAQI). A descriptive statistics analysis was applied to check the acceptance level of six significant parameters, including AQI. The sample data was then analyzed using correlation and paired sample t-test to find out the significant level of each parameter under consideration. The results showed that air quality has significantly improved during the lockdown. The paper has suggested adopting such forced periodic alternatives soon to clean the environment.

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Topics: Air quality index (57.99%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13105617
18 May 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: This paper’s persistence is to make an inclusive analysis of 268 documents about specific energy consumption (SEC) in machining operations from 2001 to 2020 in the Scopus database. A systematic approach collects information on SEC documents’ primary data; their types, publications, citations, and predictions are presented. The VOSviewer 1.1.16 and Biblioshiny 2.0 software are used for visualization analysis to show the progress standing of SEC publications. The selection criteria of documents are set for citation analysis. The ranks are assigned to the most prolific and dominant authors, sources, articles, countries, and organizations based on the total citations, number of documents, average total citation, and total link strength. The author-keywords, index-keywords, and text data content analysis has been conducted to find the hotspots and progress trend in SEC in machining operations. The most prolific and dominant article, source, author, organization, and country are Anderson et al. “Laser-assisted machining of Inconel 718 with an economic analysis”, the Int J Mach Tools Manuf, Shin Y.C., form Purdue University Singapore, and United States, respectively, based on total citations as per defined criteria. The author keywords “specific cutting energy” and “surface roughness” dominate the machining operations SEC. SEC’s implication in machining operations review and bibliometric analysis is to deliver an inclusive perception for the scholars working in this field. It is the primary paper that utilizes bibliometric research to analyze the SEC in machining operations publications expansively. It is valuable for scholars to grasp the hotspots in this field in time and help the researchers in the SEC exploration arena rapidly comprehend the expansion status and trend.

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Topics: Citation analysis (52%)

8 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2021.04.624
Abstract: Studies on sustainable manufacturing engineering accumulate a growing body of knowledge, driven by an increasing interest in processes’ long-term viability. The quality enhancement and optimization of manufacturing operations have become a pressing need for sustainability. As a result, new renewable technology and work method proposals are required; they must combine the ecological and social aspects at an industrial level of manufacturing processes while preserving the economic and technological viability. There is no single structure for orienting study lines of optimization when it comes to sustainability. So, this paper focuses on a summary of concepts related to sustainable machining operations. In this framework, sustainable machining can be described as a part of sustainable manufacturing. The different alternative machining technologies such as dry machining, cryogenic machining, and high-pressure jet assisted machining, etc., are discussed briefly concerning sustainable machining. The problem and synergy between economic and environmental considerations and the effect of cooling fluids in the machining operations, optimization of power/energy responses in determining optimal machining conditions are outlined for sustainable machining. This paper offers a broad assessment of sustainable machining technology’s value in achieving sustainable manufacturing goals and implementing them at the ground level.

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Topics: Machining (60%), Sustainability (54%), Manufacturing operations (53%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2021.08.132
Abstract: The Entropy weights method (EWM) has been widely utilized in multi-objective optimization (MOO) and decision-making. This study aims to conduct comprehensive scrutiny of the EWM in machining operations (EWMiMO). A systematic technique was applied to collect data on EWMiMO. It includes different types of published documents. The visualization analysis of most cited documents was conducted using the VOSviewer 1.6.16 and Biblioshiny 2.0 tools to illustrate EWMiMO publications status. For citation analysis, document selection criteria were established. The most productive authors, sources, publications, nations, and organizations were ranked based on the total number of citations. The research hotspots and progression patterns in EWMiMO were identified using author-keywords and index-keywords analysis. It is the first article to use bibliometric research to examine EWMiMO publications comprehensively. The study leads to grasping the hotspots in EWMiMO in real-time. The results also assist EWMiMO researchers in quickly comprehending the expansion in MOO.

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Topics: Citation analysis (51%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2021.04.481
Abstract: Punjab is a state with enormous biomass potential resource available as crop residue called agri-waste. In the wake of utilizing agricultural waste as local fuel, feeding and thatching, it is widely available. The burning of agricultural-waste in the atmosphere pollutes the environment and promotes global warming. Thereby it is essential to use this waste for human’s worthiness. This article presents the region-wise production from biomass build-ups and the surplus potential. Roughly 64 Mty-1 of the total build-up is created from diverse main and insignificant yields, out of which 60.22% is expended in diverse structures, bringing about 40.3% as a net surplus accessible for energy generation. Essential and net surplus product build-ups for energy potential were calculated in every province. Moga, Patiala, Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, and Jalandhar are the actual excess biomass potential areas. In contrast, Pathankot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Rupnagar Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Bathinda are the least biomass potential locale inside the state. About 1.263 GW and 1.199 GW of energy in the state can be produced using essential and net surplus biomass surplus individually. This paper also discussed the block-wise biomass potential in district Ludhiana. The proposed power plant location in this district, fuel cost, fuel availability and transportation cost are considered as constraints. It has been seen that maximum fuel is available at Sidhwanbet village. Still, by adding transportation cost and comparing results, it has been seen that the effective cost of fuel of plant located at the block–II Ludhiana is minimum.

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Topics: Biomass (52%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2021.10.382
M. Suresh1, Urmila NatarajanInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In the new era of Healthcare 4.0 (H 4.0), several life-threatening historical challenges have been observed in the medical industry worldwide since 2019, making industry to determine its evolution starting from 1.0 to 4.0. Industrial revolution from 1.0 to 4.0 has brought tremendous benefits including improved productivity, efficiency, quality in processes, flexibility, agility, innovation opportunities etc., H 4.0 adapts and integrates the principles of industry 4.0 and technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, cyber physical system, big data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) with respect to business model synergy across healthcare applicants, shareholders, organization and value chain. With the help of relevant information from published articles, this study is aimed to review the evolution of Healthcare from 1.0 to 4.0, its technological aspects, the challenges and opportunities while implementing H 4.0, and its future research directions. The research articles from 2015 to 2021 are selected for this study and are categorized based on technological transformation, employee competencies in adaption of H4.0, opportunities and challenges in H4.0.

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Topics: Business model (52%), Cyber-physical system (50%), Big data (50%)

References
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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2008.09.051
Daniel J. Jacob1, Darrell A. Winner2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due to a weaker global circulation and a decreasing frequency of mid-latitude cyclones. The observed correlation between surface ozone and temperature in polluted regions points to a detrimental effect of warming. Coupled GCM-CTM studies find that climate change alone will increase summertime surface ozone in polluted regions by 1-10 ppb over the coming decades, with the largest effects in urban areas and during pollution episodes. This climate penalty means that stronger emission controls will be needed to meet a given air quality standard. Higher water vapor in the future climate is expected to decrease the ozone background, so that pollution and background ozone have opposite sensitivities to climate change. The effect of climate change on particulate matter (PM) is more complicated and uncertain than for ozone. Precipitation frequency and mixing depth are important driving factors but projections for these vari- ables are often unreliable. GCM-CTM studies find that climate change will affect PM concentrations in polluted environments by � 0.1-1 m gm

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Topics: Global warming (64%), Climate commitment (64%), Climate change (62%) ... show more

1,244 Citations


Open accessReportDOI: 10.3386/W6826
Kenneth Y. Chay1, Michael GreenstoneInstitutions (1)
Abstract: We exploit the structure of the Clean Air Act to provide new evidence on the capitalization of total suspended particulates (TSPs) air pollution into housing values. This legislation imposes strict regulations on polluters in “nonattainment” counties, which are defined by concentrations of TSPs that exceed a federally set ceiling. TSPs nonattainment status is associated with large reductions in TSPs pollution and increases in county-level housing prices. When nonattainment status is used as an instrumental variable for TSPs, we find that the elasticity of housing values with respect to particulates concentrations ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. These estimates of the average marginal willingness to pay for clean air are robust to quasi-experimental regression discontinuity and matching specification tests. Further, they are far less sensitive to model specification than cross-sectional and fixed-effects estimates, which occasionally have the “perverse” sign. We also find modest evidence that the marginal benefit of reductions of TSPs is lower in communities with relatively high pollution levels,

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Topics: Clean Air Act (51%), Air quality index (51%)

727 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2009.08.021
Paul S. Monks1, Claire Granier2, Claire Granier3, Claire Granier4  +65 moreInstitutions (39)
Abstract: Air quality transcends all scales with in the atmosphere from the local to the global with handovers and feedbacks at each scale interaction Air quality has manifold effects on health, ecosystems, heritage and climate In this review the state of scientific understanding in relation to global and regional air quality is outlined The review discusses air quality, in terms of emissions, processing and transport of trace gases and aerosols New insights into the characterization of both natural and anthropogenic emissions are reviewed looking at both natural (eg dust and lightning) as well as plant emissions Trends in anthropogenic emissions both by region and globally are discussed as well as biomass burning emissions In terms of chemical processing the major air quality elements of ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and aerosols are covered A number of topics are presented as a way of integrating the process view into the atmospheric context; these include the atmospheric oxidation efficiency, halogen and HOx chemistry, nighttime chemistry, tropical chemistry, heat waves, megacities, biomass burning and the regional hot spot of the Mediterranean New findings with respect to the transport of pollutants across the scales are discussed, in particular the move to quantify the impact of long-range transport on regional air quality Gaps and research questions that remain intractable are identified The review concludes with a focus of research and policy questions for the coming decade In particular, the policy challenges for concerted air quality and climate change policy (co-benefit) are discussed

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Topics: Air quality index (62%)

683 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2020.138878
Shubham Sharma1, Mengyuan Zhang2, Anshika1, Jingsi Gao3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The effectiveness and cost are always top factors for policy-makers to decide control measures and most measures had no pre-test before implementation. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, human activities are largely restricted in many regions in India since mid-March of 2020, and it is a progressing experiment to testify effectiveness of restricted emissions. In this study, concentrations of six criteria pollutants, PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, ozone and SO2 during March 16th to April 14th from 2017 to 2020 in 22 cities covering different regions of India were analysed. Overall, around 43, 31, 10, and 18% decreases in PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 in India were observed during lockdown period compared to previous years. While, there were 17% increase in O3 and negligible changes in SO2. The air quality index (AQI) reduced by 44, 33, 29, 15 and 32% in north, south, east, central and western India, respectively. Correlation between cities especially in northern and eastern regions improved in 2020 compared to previous years, indicating more significant regional transport than previous years. The mean excessive risks of PM reduced by ~52% nationwide due to restricted activities in lockdown period. To eliminate the effects of possible favourable meteorology, the WRF-AERMOD model system was also applied in Delhi-NCR with actual meteorology during the lockdown period and an un-favourable event in early November of 2019 and results show that predicted PM2.5 could increase by only 33% in unfavourable meteorology. This study gives confidence to the regulatory bodies that even during unfavourable meteorology, a significant improvement in air quality could be expected if strict execution of air quality control plans is implemented.

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Topics: Air quality index (53%)

557 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2020.139086
Susanta Mahato1, Susanta Mahato2, Swades Pal1, Swades Pal2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationwide lockdown is imposed in India initially for three weeks from 24th March to 14th April 2020 and extended up to 3rd May 2020. Due to the forced restrictions, pollution level in cities across the country drastically slowed down just within few days which magnetize discussions regarding lockdown to be the effectual alternative measures to be implemented for controlling air pollution. The present article eventually worked on this direction to look upon the air quality scenario amidst the lockdown period scientifically with special reference to the megacity Delhi. With the aid of air quality data of seven pollutant parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and NH3) for 34 monitoring stations spread over the megacity we have employed National Air Quality Index (NAQI) to show the spatial pattern of air quality in pre and during-lockdown phases. The results demonstrated that during lockdown air quality is significantly improved. Among the selected pollutants, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 have witnessed maximum reduction (>50%) in compare to the pre-lockdown phase. In compare to the last year (i.e. 2019) during the said time period the reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 is as high as about 60% and 39% respectively. Among other pollutants, NO2 (-52.68%) and CO (-30.35%) level have also reduced during-lockdown phase. About 40% to 50% improvement in air quality is identified just after four days of commencing lockdown. About 54%, 49%, 43%, 37% and 31% reduction in NAQI have been observed in Central, Eastern, Southern, Western and Northern parts of the megacity. Overall, the study is thought to be a useful supplement to the regulatory bodies since it showed the pollution source control can attenuate the air quality. Temporary such source control in a suitable time interval may heal the environment.

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Topics: Air quality index (57.99%)

512 Citations