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Journal ArticleDOI

MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more transparent and integrative metabolomics analysis.

TL;DR: The user interface of MetaboAnalyst 4.0 has been reengineered to provide a more modern look and feel, as well as to give more space and flexibility to introduce new functions.
Abstract: We present a new update to MetaboAnalyst (version 4.0) for comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, interpretation, and integration with other omics data. Since the last major update in 2015, MetaboAnalyst has continued to evolve based on user feedback and technological advancements in the field. For this year's update, four new key features have been added to MetaboAnalyst 4.0, including: (1) real-time R command tracking and display coupled with the release of a companion MetaboAnalystR package; (2) a MS Peaks to Pathways module for prediction of pathway activity from untargeted mass spectral data using the mummichog algorithm; (3) a Biomarker Meta-analysis module for robust biomarker identification through the combination of multiple metabolomic datasets and (4) a Network Explorer module for integrative analysis of metabolomics, metagenomics, and/or transcriptomics data. The user interface of MetaboAnalyst 4.0 has been reengineered to provide a more modern look and feel, as well as to give more space and flexibility to introduce new functions. The underlying knowledgebases (compound libraries, metabolite sets, and metabolic pathways) have also been updated based on the latest data from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). A Docker image of MetaboAnalyst is also available to facilitate download and local installation of MetaboAnalyst. MetaboAnalyst 4.0 is freely available at http://metaboanalyst.ca.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The MetaboAnalyst 5.0 as mentioned in this paper is the latest version of the web-based platform for comprehensive metabolomics data analysis and interpretation, aiming to narrow the gap from raw data to functional insights for global metabolomics based on HRMS.
Abstract: Since its first release over a decade ago, the MetaboAnalyst web-based platform has become widely used for comprehensive metabolomics data analysis and interpretation. Here we introduce MetaboAnalyst version 5.0, aiming to narrow the gap from raw data to functional insights for global metabolomics based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Three modules have been developed to help achieve this goal, including: (i) a LC-MS Spectra Processing module which offers an easy-to-use pipeline that can perform automated parameter optimization and resumable analysis to significantly lower the barriers to LC-MS1 spectra processing; (ii) a Functional Analysis module which expands the previous MS Peaks to Pathways module to allow users to intuitively select any peak groups of interest and evaluate their enrichment of potential functions as defined by metabolic pathways and metabolite sets; (iii) a Functional Meta-Analysis module to combine multiple global metabolomics datasets obtained under complementary conditions or from similar studies to arrive at comprehensive functional insights. There are many other new functions including weighted joint-pathway analysis, data-driven network analysis, batch effect correction, merging technical replicates, improved compound name matching, etc. The web interface, graphics and underlying codebase have also been refactored to improve performance and user experience. At the end of an analysis session, users can now easily switch to other compatible modules for a more streamlined data analysis. MetaboAnalyst 5.0 is freely available at https://www.metaboanalyst.ca.

1,530 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of MetaboAnalyst 4.0 is provided, followed by 12 detailed protocols: © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Abstract: MetaboAnalyst (https://www.metaboanalyst.ca) is an easy-to-use web-based tool suite for comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, interpretation, and integration with other omics data. Since its first release in 2009, MetaboAnalyst has evolved significantly to meet the ever-expanding bioinformatics demands from the rapidly growing metabolomics community. In addition to providing a variety of data processing and normalization procedures, MetaboAnalyst supports a wide array of functions for statistical, functional, as well as data visualization tasks. Some of the most widely used approaches include PCA (principal component analysis), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis), clustering analysis and visualization, MSEA (metabolite set enrichment analysis), MetPA (metabolic pathway analysis), biomarker selection via ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, as well as time series and power analysis. The current version of MetaboAnalyst (4.0) features a complete overhaul of the user interface and significantly expanded underlying knowledge bases (compound database, pathway libraries, and metabolite sets). Three new modules have been added to support pathway activity prediction directly from mass peaks, biomarker meta-analysis, and network-based multi-omics data integration. To enable more transparent and reproducible analysis of metabolomic data, we have released a companion R package (MetaboAnalystR) to complement the web-based application. This article provides an overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of MetaboAnalyst 4.0, followed by 12 detailed protocols: © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol 1: Data uploading, processing, and normalization Basic Protocol 2: Identification of significant variables Basic Protocol 3: Multivariate exploratory data analysis Basic Protocol 4: Functional interpretation of metabolomic data Basic Protocol 5: Biomarker analysis based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves Basic Protocol 6: Time-series and two-factor data analysis Basic Protocol 7: Sample size estimation and power analysis Basic Protocol 8: Joint pathway analysis Basic Protocol 9: MS peaks to pathway activities Basic Protocol 10: Biomarker meta-analysis Basic Protocol 11: Knowledge-based network exploration of multi-omics data Basic Protocol 12: MetaboAnalystR introduction.

1,522 citations


Cites background from "MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more tra..."

  • ...The latest version, MetaboAnalyst 4.0 (Chong et al., 2018), features three new modules including: predicting pathway activities from MS peak lists, biomarker analysis integrating multiple metabolomic datasets, and integrative analysis of multi-omics data through knowledge-based networks....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This protocol details MicrobiomeAnalyst, a user-friendly, web-based platform for comprehensive statistical, functional, and meta-analysis of microbiome data, a one-stop shop that enables microbiome researchers to thoroughly explore their preprocessed microbiome data via intuitive web interfaces.
Abstract: MicrobiomeAnalyst is an easy-to-use, web-based platform for comprehensive analysis of common data outputs generated from current microbiome studies. It enables researchers and clinicians with little or no bioinformatics training to explore a wide variety of well-established methods for microbiome data processing, statistical analysis, functional profiling and comparison with public datasets or known microbial signatures. MicrobiomeAnalyst currently contains four modules: Marker-gene Data Profiling (MDP), Shotgun Data Profiling (SDP), Projection with Public Data (PPD), and Taxon Set Enrichment Analysis (TSEA). This protocol will first introduce the MDP module by providing a step-wise description of how to prepare, process and normalize data; perform community profiling; identify important features; and conduct correlation and classification analysis. We will then demonstrate how to perform predictive functional profiling and introduce several unique features of the SDP module for functional analysis. The last two sections will describe the key steps involved in using the PPD and TSEA modules for meta-analysis and visual exploration of the results. In summary, MicrobiomeAnalyst offers a one-stop shop that enables microbiome researchers to thoroughly explore their preprocessed microbiome data via intuitive web interfaces. The complete protocol can be executed in ~70 min. This protocol details MicrobiomeAnalyst, a user-friendly, web-based platform for comprehensive statistical, functional, and meta-analysis of microbiome data.

823 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A companion R package based on the R code base of the MetaboAnalyst web server to facilitate transparent, flexible and reproducible analysis of metabolomics data.
Abstract: Summary The MetaboAnalyst web application has been widely used for metabolomics data analysis and interpretation. Despite its user-friendliness, the web interface has presented its inherent limitations (especially for advanced users) with regard to flexibility in creating customized workflow, support for reproducible analysis, and capacity in dealing with large data. To address these limitations, we have developed a companion R package (MetaboAnalystR) based on the R code base of the web server. The package has been thoroughly tested to ensure that the same R commands will produce identical results from both interfaces. MetaboAnalystR complements the MetaboAnalyst web server to facilitate transparent, flexible and reproducible analysis of metabolomics data. Availability and implementation MetaboAnalystR is freely available from https://github.com/xia-lab/MetaboAnalystR.

435 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that ferroptotic cell death and lipid peroxidation can be inhibited by treatments that induce or mimic energy stress, and an unexpected coupling between ferroPTosis and AMPK-mediated energy-stress signalling is revealed.
Abstract: Energy stress depletes ATP and induces cell death. Here we identify an unexpected inhibitory role of energy stress on ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death induced by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. We found that ferroptotic cell death and lipid peroxidation can be inhibited by treatments that induce or mimic energy stress. Inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy status, largely abolishes the protective effects of energy stress on ferroptosis in vitro and on ferroptosis-associated renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Cancer cells with high basal AMPK activation are resistant to ferroptosis and AMPK inactivation sensitizes these cells to ferroptosis. Functional and lipidomic analyses further link AMPK regulation of ferroptosis to AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Our study demonstrates that energy stress inhibits ferroptosis partly through AMPK and reveals an unexpected coupling between ferroptosis and AMPK-mediated energy-stress signalling.

403 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) method as discussed by the authors focuses on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation.
Abstract: Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.

34,830 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Minoru Kanehisa1, Miho Furumichi1, Mao Tanabe1, Yoko Sato2, Kanae Morishima1 
TL;DR: The content has been expanded and the quality improved irrespective of whether or not the KOs appear in the three molecular network databases, and the newly introduced addendum category of the GENES database is a collection of individual proteins whose functions are experimentally characterized and from which an increasing number of KOs are defined.
Abstract: KEGG (http://www.kegg.jp/ or http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Assigning functional meanings to genes and genomes both at the molecular and higher levels is the primary objective of the KEGG database project. Molecular-level functions are stored in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, where each KO is defined as a functional ortholog of genes and proteins. Higher-level functions are represented by networks of molecular interactions, reactions and relations in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules. In the past the KO database was developed for the purpose of defining nodes of molecular networks, but now the content has been expanded and the quality improved irrespective of whether or not the KOs appear in the three molecular network databases. The newly introduced addendum category of the GENES database is a collection of individual proteins whose functions are experimentally characterized and from which an increasing number of KOs are defined. Furthermore, the DISEASE and DRUG databases have been improved by systematic analysis of drug labels for better integration of diseases and drugs with the KEGG molecular networks. KEGG is moving towards becoming a comprehensive knowledge base for both functional interpretation and practical application of genomic information.

5,741 citations


"MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more tra..." refers background in this paper

  • ...For metabolites, MetaboAnalyst 4.0 currently accepts compound names, HMDB IDs or KEGG compound IDs as metabolite identifiers....

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  • ...The knowledgebase for this module consists of five genome-scale metabolic models obtained from the original Python implementation which have either been manually curated or downloaded from BioCyc, as well as an expanded library of 21 organisms derived from the KEGG metabolic pathways....

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  • ...For genes, Entrez IDs, ENSEMBL IDs, official gene symbols or KEGG orthologs are currently supported....

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  • ...On the network visualization page, users can use their mouse or touchpad to zoom in and out, highlight, drag and drop nodes (except the KEGG global metabolic network), or click on a node/edge for further details....

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  • ...The aim of this module is to provide users with an easy-to-use interface that permits the mapping of their metabolites and/or genes (including KEGG orthologs or KOs) onto different types of molecular interaction networks....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases is provided, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access.
Abstract: PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases.

3,328 citations


"MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more tra..." refers background in this paper

  • ...MetaboAnalyst performs in-house mapping of common compound names to a wide variety of database identifiers including KEGG (20), HMDB (21), ChEBI (22), METLIN (23) and PubChem (24) prior to performing any functional analysis....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new generation of a popular open-source data processing toolbox, MZmine 2 is introduced, suitable for processing large batches of data and has been applied to both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic analyses.
Abstract: Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with online separation methods is commonly applied for differential and quantitative profiling of biological samples in metabolomic as well as proteomic research. Such approaches are used for systems biology, functional genomics, and biomarker discovery, among others. An ongoing challenge of these molecular profiling approaches, however, is the development of better data processing methods. Here we introduce a new generation of a popular open-source data processing toolbox, MZmine 2. A key concept of the MZmine 2 software design is the strict separation of core functionality and data processing modules, with emphasis on easy usability and support for high-resolution spectra processing. Data processing modules take advantage of embedded visualization tools, allowing for immediate previews of parameter settings. Newly introduced functionality includes the identification of peaks using online databases, MSn data support, improved isotope pattern support, scatter plot visualization, and a new method for peak list alignment based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. The performance of the RANSAC alignment was evaluated using synthetic datasets as well as actual experimental data, and the results were compared to those obtained using other alignment algorithms. MZmine 2 is freely available under a GNU GPL license and can be obtained from the project website at: http://mzmine.sourceforge.net/ . The current version of MZmine 2 is suitable for processing large batches of data and has been applied to both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic analyses.

2,884 citations


"MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more tra..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...A number of excellent methods have been developed to deal with the first two tasks (26,27), which typically yield a list of ‘clean’ MS peaks....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This year's update to the HMDB, HMDB 4.0, represents the most significant upgrade to the database in its history and should greatly enhance its ease of use and its potential applications in nutrition, biochemistry, clinical chemistry, clinical genetics, medicine, and metabolomics science.
Abstract: The Human Metabolome Database or HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) is a web-enabled metabolomic database containing comprehensive information about human metabolites along with their biological roles, physiological concentrations, disease associations, chemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and reference spectra. First described in 2007, the HMDB is now considered the standard metabolomic resource for human metabolic studies. Over the past decade the HMDB has continued to grow and evolve in response to emerging needs for metabolomics researchers and continuing changes in web standards. This year's update, HMDB 4.0, represents the most significant upgrade to the database in its history. For instance, the number of fully annotated metabolites has increased by nearly threefold, the number of experimental spectra has grown by almost fourfold and the number of illustrated metabolic pathways has grown by a factor of almost 60. Significant improvements have also been made to the HMDB's chemical taxonomy, chemical ontology, spectral viewing, and spectral/text searching tools. A great deal of brand new data has also been added to HMDB 4.0. This includes large quantities of predicted MS/MS and GC-MS reference spectral data as well as predicted (physiologically feasible) metabolite structures to facilitate novel metabolite identification. Additional information on metabolite-SNP interactions and the influence of drugs on metabolite levels (pharmacometabolomics) has also been added. Many other important improvements in the content, the interface, and the performance of the HMDB website have been made and these should greatly enhance its ease of use and its potential applications in nutrition, biochemistry, clinical chemistry, clinical genetics, medicine, and metabolomics science.

2,608 citations


"MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more tra..." refers background in this paper

  • ...For metabolites, MetaboAnalyst 4.0 currently accepts compound names, HMDB IDs or KEGG compound IDs as metabolite identifiers....

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  • ...The last four networks are created based on information gathered primarily from HMDB and STITCH databases (43), and are applicable to human studies only....

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  • ...This knowledgebase has been updated with HMDB Version 4.0, including updates of HMDB identifiers and links to other databases....

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  • ...The underlying knowledgebases (compound libraries, metabolite sets, and metabolic pathways) have also been updated based on the latest data from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)....

    [...]

  • ...MetaboAnalyst performs in-house mapping of common compound names to a wide variety of database identifiers including KEGG (20), HMDB (21), ChEBI (22), METLIN (23) and PubChem (24) prior to performing any functional analysis....

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