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Journal ArticleDOI

Methane Emissions from Paddy Rice Fields: Strategies towards Achieving A Win-Win Sustainability Scenario between Rice Production and Methane Emission Reduction

21 Nov 2011-Journal of Sustainable Development-Vol. 4, Iss: 6, pp 188

AbstractThis paper reviews the emissions of methane from Paddy rice fields and the various strategies that can be used to mitigate methane emission while continuing with rice production. The option of setting up a win-win sustainable development approach is based on the fact that rice remains one of the most widely consumed cereals in the world. The paper also seeks to review the emission mechanisms and to illustrate from existing literature that when methane emissions are high under flood conditions (rainy season), there is a reduction in rice output and the reverse is true during periods of less flood. Yet, how can rice be produced without flooding? This paper is mainly a review paper which essentially obtains most of the information by reviewing other studies. The results from the analysis and reviews shows that globally, South East Asia leads in the global rice production and methane emissions chart. During periods of floods emissions are high and this compromises rice yields. The optimum solution to mitigation is based on a synergy of methods and not just on a single method as seen in the review of mitigation strategies.

Topics: Paddy field (55%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: . Global temperature is a fundamental climate metric highly correlated with sea level, which implies that keeping shorelines near their present location requires keeping global temperature within or close to its preindustrial Holocene range. However, global temperature excluding short-term variability now exceeds +1 °C relative to the 1880–1920 mean and annual 2016 global temperature was almost +1.3 °C. We show that global temperature has risen well out of the Holocene range and Earth is now as warm as it was during the prior (Eemian) interglacial period, when sea level reached 6–9 m higher than today. Further, Earth is out of energy balance with present atmospheric composition, implying that more warming is in the pipeline, and we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has accelerated markedly in the past decade. The rapidity of ice sheet and sea level response to global temperature is difficult to predict, but is dependent on the magnitude of warming. Targets for limiting global warming thus, at minimum, should aim to avoid leaving global temperature at Eemian or higher levels for centuries. Such targets now require negative emissions , i.e., extraction of CO2 from the air. If phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, improved agricultural and forestry practices, including reforestation and steps to improve soil fertility and increase its carbon content, may provide much of the necessary CO2 extraction. In that case, the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the current interglacial (Holocene) could be limited and irreversible climate impacts could be minimized. In contrast, continued high fossil fuel emissions today place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO2 extraction if they are to limit climate change and its consequences. Proposed methods of extraction such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or air capture of CO2 have minimal estimated costs of USD 89–535 trillion this century and also have large risks and uncertain feasibility. Continued high fossil fuel emissions unarguably sentences young people to either a massive, implausible cleanup or growing deleterious climate impacts or both.

157 citations


Cites background from "Methane Emissions from Paddy Rice F..."

  • ...Methane emissions from rice agriculture and ruminants potentially could be mitigated by changing rice growing methods (Epule et al., 2011) and inoculating ruminants (Eckard et al....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Global temperature is a fundamental climate metric highly correlated with sea level, which implies that keeping shorelines near their present location requires keeping global temperature within or close to its preindustrial Holocene range. However, global temperature excluding short-term variability now exceeds +1degC relative to the 1880-1920 mean and annual 2016 global temperature was almost +1.3degC. We show that global temperature has risen well out of the Holocene range and Earth is now as warm as during the prior interglacial, when sea level reached 6-9 meters higher than today. Further, Earth is out of energy balance with present atmospheric composition, implying more warming is in the pipeline, and we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has accelerated markedly in the past decade. The rapidity of ice sheet and sea level response to global temperature is difficult to predict but is dependent on the magnitude of warming. Targets for limiting global warming should aim to avoid leaving global temperature at Eemian or higher levels for centuries. Such targets require "negative emissions", extraction of CO2 from the air. If phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, improved agricultural and forestry practices may provide much of the extraction, and the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the current interglacial could be limited and irreversible impacts minimized. In contrast, continued high emissions place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO2 extraction to limit climate change and its consequences. Proposed methods of extraction have minimal estimated costs of 89-535 trillion dollars this century and have large risks and uncertain feasibility. Continued high emissions unarguably sentences young people to a massive, implausible cleanup, growing deleterious climate impacts or both.

93 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2014-Geoderma
Abstract: Rice fields in the tropics can vary in water regime before production of rice on flooded soil, but relatively little is known about the effects of soil water regime and crop residue management between rice crops (i.e., fallow period) on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions during a subsequent rice crop. We measured CH 4 and N 2 O emissions during two cropping seasons in the Philippines from field plots exposed to contrasting treatments during the fallow before land preparation for rice cultivation. The fallow treatments were continuous soil flooding (flooded), soil drying with exclusion of rainfall (dry), soil drying with dry tillage (dry + tillage), and a control with soil drying and wetting from rainfall (dry and wet). All plots were subdivided into removal of all aboveground rice residues from the previous crop (without residue) and retention of standing biomass after harvest of the previous rice crop (with residue). Emitted gas was collected weekly using chambers. Fallow treatments greatly influenced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during rice growth. Methane emissions and global warming potential (GWP) in both cropping seasons were highest following the flooded fallow, intermediate following the dry and wet fallow, and lowest following dry and dry + tillage fallows. The GWP was higher with than without residue across all fallow treatments. Nitrous oxide emissions were small during the season, and CH 4 emissions contributed more than 90% of the cumulative GWP during the rice crop regardless of fallow and residue management. Soil drying between rice crops in the tropics can reduce CH 4 emissions and GWP during the subsequent rice crop.

66 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This review addresses short- and long-term adaptation strategies in rain fed and irrigated rice production systems under two climate change scenarios, specifically temperature increases and drought incidence. Each scenario is discussed based on rice plant physiological responses to abiotic stress and, where applicable, consequent yield losses. Possible short- and long-term adaptation measures, mainly focused on crop management strategies and germplasm development, are suggested to overcome production losses. Increased temperature, for example, can adversely affect rice yields either as a result of spikelet sterility or reduced accumulation of assimilates. Most agronomic operations to minimize the impact of increased temperatures involve early sowing or the use of early maturing rice cultivars to avoid high temperatures at grain filling. These measures might be feasible, but inadequate, as periods of increased temperature become more frequent and severe particularly in regions where temperatures are already above optimum for rice growth. On the other hand, rice germplasm from exceedingly warm environments can be used for selecting traits which are appropriate for the development of high temperature stress-tolerant rice cultivars. Drought incidence causes stomata closure, which reduces the leaf CO2/O2 ratio, resulting in photosynthesis inhibition and subsequent reductions in biomass production and the life cycle of the plant. These are manifested in significant yield losses. Drought is a common phenomenon in many rice growing environments, and research on developing cultivars capable of escaping, avoiding and/or tolerating drought merits further attention. Crop management, including water management techniques, to mitigate drought stress has also advanced. The implementation of a water-saving technology called alternate-wetting and drying, for example, enables optimum use of irrigation water and reduces methane emissions by 48% compared to continuous flooding of rice fields. Therefore, the suggested adaptation measures are also aligned and discussed based on their potential to decrease methane emissions from rice fields. This paper highlights the importance of germplasm development and improved agronomic practices as the center piece of climate change adaptation in rice farming systems.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO 2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha −1 ) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha −1 , and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha −1 ). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K 2 O ha −1 and 40 kg P 2 O 5 ha −1 . Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO 2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6–10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO 2 emission. Much larger soil CO 2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage significantly reduced soil CO 2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO 2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO 2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non-fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha −1 in combination with 3 Mg ha −1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO 2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha −1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO 2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

44 citations


References
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01 Jan 2001

1,724 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jan 2006-Nature
TL;DR: It is demonstrated using stable carbon isotopes that methane is readily formed in situ in terrestrial plants under oxic conditions by a hitherto unrecognized process, suggesting that this newly identified source may have important implications for the global methane budget and may call for a reconsideration of the role of natural methane sources in past climate change.
Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas and its atmospheric concentration has almost tripled since pre-industrial times. It plays a central role in atmospheric oxidation chemistry and affects stratospheric ozone and water vapour levels. Most of the methane from natural sources in Earth's atmosphere is thought to originate from biological processes in anoxic environments. Here we demonstrate using stable carbon isotopes that methane is readily formed in situ in terrestrial plants under oxic conditions by a hitherto unrecognized process. Significant methane emissions from both intact plants and detached leaves were observed during incubation experiments in the laboratory and in the field. If our measurements are typical for short-lived biomass and scaled on a global basis, we estimate a methane source strength of 62-236 Tg yr(-1) for living plants and 1-7 Tg yr(-1) for plant litter (1 Tg = 10(12) g). We suggest that this newly identified source may have important implications for the global methane budget and may call for a reconsideration of the role of natural methane sources in past climate change.

861 citations


"Methane Emissions from Paddy Rice F..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Methane is a vital greenhouse gas and its atmospheric concentration has almost increased three fold since the pre-industrial era (Keppler et al., 2006; Zou et al., 2005)....

    [...]

  • ...However, the exact mechanisms by which this works are still unclear (Keppler et al., 2006; Wassmann et al., 2000)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A global data set on the geographic distribution and seasonality of freshwater wetlands and rice paddies has been compiled, comprising information at a spatial resolution of 2.5° by latitude and 5° by longitude. Global coverage of these wetlands total 5.7×106 km2 and 1.3×106 km2, respectively. Natural wetlands have been grouped into six categories following common terminology, i.e. bog, fen, swamp, marsh, floodplain, and shallow lake. Net primary productivity (NPP) of natural wetlands is estimated to be in the range of 4–9×1015 g dry matter per year. Rice paddies have an NPP of about 1.4×1015 g y−1. Extrapolation of measured CH4 emissions in individual ecosystems lead to global methane emission estimates of 40–160 Teragram (1 Tg=1012 g) from natural wetlands and 60–140 Tg from rice paddies per year. The mean emission of 170–200 Tg may come in about equal proportions from natural wetlands and paddies. Major source regions are located in the subtropics between 20 and 30° N, the tropics between 0 and 10° S, and the temperate-boreal region between 50 and 70° N. Emissions are highly seasonal, maximizing during summer in both hemispheres. The wide range of possible CH4 emissions shows the large uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of measured flux rates to global scale. More investigations into ecophysiological principals of methane emissions is warranted to arrive at better source estimates.

687 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: [1] A 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddies under various agricultural managements including water regime, crop residue incorporation, and synthetic fertilizer application In contrast with continuous flooding, midseason drainage incurred a drop in CH4 fluxes while triggering substantial N2O emission Moreover, N2O emissions after midseason drainage depended strongly on whether or not fields were waterlogged due to intermittent irrigation Urea application tended to reduce CH4 emissions but significantly increased N2O emissions Under a water regime of flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moist intermittent irrigation but without water logging (F-D-F-M), both wheat straw and rapeseed cake incorporation increased CH4 emissions by 252%, and rapeseed cake increased N2O by 17% while wheat straw reduced N2O by 19% compared to controls Seasonal average fluxes of CH4 ranged from 254 mg m−2 d−1 when no additional residue was applied under the water regime of flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding to 1169 mg m−2 d−1 when wheat straw was applied at 225 t ha−1 under continuous irrigation flooding Seasonal average fluxes of N2O varied between 003 mg N2O-N m−2 d−1 under continuous flooding and 523 mg N2O-N m−2 d−1 under the water regime of F-D-F-M Both crop residue-induced CH4, ranging from 9 to 15% of the incorporated residue C, and N2O, ranging from 001 to 178% of the applied N, were dependent on water regime in rice paddies Estimations of net global warming potentials (GWPs) indicate that water management by flooding with midseason drainage and frequent water logging without the use of organic amendments is an effective option for mitigating the combined climatic impacts from CH4 and N2O in paddy rice production

551 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Methane emission rates from rice-vegetated paddy fields followed a seasonal pattern different to that of weed-covered or unvegetated fields. Presence of rice plants stimulated the emission of CH4 both in the laboratory and in the field. In unvegetated paddy fields CH4 was emitted almost exclusively by ebullition. By contrast, in rice-vegetated fields more than 90% of the CH4 emission was due to plant-mediated transport. Rice plants stimulated methanogenesis in the submerged soil, but also enhanced the CH4 oxidation rates within the rhizosphere so that only 23% of the produced CH4 was emitted. Gas bubbles in vegetated paddy soils contained lower CH4 mixing ratios than in unvegetated fiels. Weed plants were also efficient in mediating gas exchnage between submerged soil and atmosphere, but did not stimulate methanogenesis. Weed plants caused a relatively high redox potential in the submerged soil so that 95% of the produced CH4 was oxidized and did not reach the atmosphere. The emission of CH4 was stimulated, however, when the cultures were incubated under gas atmospheres containing acetylene or consisting of O2-free nitrogen.

366 citations


"Methane Emissions from Paddy Rice F..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The laboratory experiments hold that there is increased methanogenesis and production of CH4 when we have rice fields which are submerged than with unvegetated submerged soils (Pschorn et al., 1986)....

    [...]


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