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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ORGLETT.1C00345

Synthesis of Unnatural α-Amino Acids via Photoinduced Decatungstate-Catalyzed Giese Reactions of Aldehydes

04 Mar 2021-Organic Letters (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 23, Iss: 6, pp 2199-2204
Abstract: Synthesis of unnatural amino acids has long been a focus of chemistry research. Here, we present an efficient, general method that furnishes γ-carbonyl α-amino acids via photoinduced decatungstate-catalyzed Giese reactions of readily available aldehydes as radical precursors. This mild, robust method is compatible with a wide array of functional groups and has a broad substrate scope. We demonstrated the utility of the method by modifying several amino acid bearing drugs and natural products.

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Topics: Amino acid (52%)

9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.1C00263
06 Aug 2021-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Direct photocatalyzed hydrogen atom transfer (d-HAT) can be considered a method of choice for the elaboration of aliphatic C-H bonds. In this manifold, a photocatalyst (PCHAT) exploits the energy of a photon to trigger the homolytic cleavage of such bonds in organic compounds. Selective C-H bond elaboration may be achieved by a judicious choice of the hydrogen abstractor (key parameters are the electronic character and the molecular structure), as well as reaction additives. Different are the classes of PCsHAT available, including aromatic ketones, xanthene dyes (Eosin Y), polyoxometalates, uranyl salts, a metal-oxo porphyrin and a tris(amino)cyclopropenium radical dication. The processes (mainly C-C bond formation) are in most cases carried out under mild conditions with the help of visible light. The aim of this review is to offer a comprehensive survey of the synthetic applications of photocatalyzed d-HAT.

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Topics: Molecule (53%), Bond cleavage (51%), Uranyl (51%) ... read more

6 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1CC02112E
Yi-Lin Liu1, Yue-Jun Ouyang1, Hongxing Zheng2, Hongxin Liu3  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Radical-mediated functionalization of alkenes has been emerging as an elegant and straightforward protocol to increase molecule complexity. Moreover, the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from aldehydes to afford acyl radicals has evolved as a rising star due to its high atom-economy and the ready availability of aldehydes. Considering the great influence and synthetic potential of acyl radical enabled reactions between aldehydes and alkenes, we provide a summary of the state of the art in this field with a specific emphasis on the working models and corresponding mechanisms. The discussion is divided according to the kind of alkenes and reaction type.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JOC.0C02951
Abstract: Herein we present a highly efficient, light-mediated, deoxygenative protocol to access γ-oxo-α-amino acid derivatives. This radical methodology employs photoredox catalysis, in combination with triphenylphosphine, to generate acyl radicals from readily available (hetero)aromatic and vinylic carboxylic acids. This approach allows for the straightforward synthesis of γ-oxo-α-amino acids bearing a wide range of functional groups (e.g., Cl, CN, furan, thiophene, Bpin) in synthetically useful yields (∼60% average yield). To further highlight the utility of the methodology, several deprotection and derivatization reactions were carried out.

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Topics: Acylation (57%), Photoredox catalysis (53%), Radical (52%) ... read more

2 Citations


41 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1471-4159.1991.TB03460.X
Abstract: To evaluate the potential contribution of circulating kynurenines to brain kynurenine pools, the rates of cerebral uptake and mechanisms of blood-brain barrier transport were determined for several kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan, including L-kynurenine (L-KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HKYN), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA), anthranilic acid (ANA), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using an in situ brain perfusion technique. L-KYN was found to be taken up into brain at a significant rate [permeability-surface area product (PA) = 2-3 x 10(-3) ml/s/g] by the large neutral amino acid carrier (L-system) of the blood-brain barrier. Best-fit estimates of the Vmax and Km of saturable L-KYN transfer equalled 4.5 x 10(-4) mumol/s/g and 0.16 mumol/ml, respectively. The same carrier may also mediate the brain uptake of 3-HKYN as D,L-3-HKYN competitively inhibited the brain transfer of the large neutral amino acid L-leucine. For the other metabolites, uptake appeared mediated by passive diffusion. This occurred at a significant rate for ANA (PA, 0.7-1.6 x 10(-3) ml/s/g), and at far lower rates (PA, 2-7 x 10(-5) ml/s/g) for 3-HANA, KYNA, and QUIN. Transfer for KYNA, 3-HANA, and ANA also appeared to be limited by plasma protein binding. The results demonstrate the saturable transfer of L-KYN across the blood-brain barrier and suggest that circulating L-KYN, 3-HKYN, and ANA may each contribute significantly to respective cerebral pools. In contrast, QUIN, KYNA, and 3-HANA cross the blood-brain barrier poorly, and therefore are not expected to contribute significantly to brain pools under normal conditions.

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Topics: Kynurenine aminotransferase II (54%), Kynurenine (54%), Kynurenic acid (54%) ... read more

580 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR050580O
Carmen Nájera1, José M. Sansano1Institutions (1)
04 Oct 2007-Chemical Reviews
Topics: Enantioselective synthesis (56%), Stereoisomerism (54%), Amino acid (53%) ... read more

557 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR500200X
21 Aug 2014-Chemical Reviews
Topics: Amino acid (58%)

356 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ACCOUNTS.6B00022
Gang He1, Bo Wang2, William A. Nack2, Gong Chen2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: α-Amino acids (αAA) are one of the most useful chiral building blocks for synthesis. There are numerous general strategies that have commonly been used for αAA synthesis, many of which employ de novo synthesis focused on enantioselective bond construction around the Cα center and others that consider conversion of existing αAA precursors carrying suitable functional groups on side chains (e.g., serine and aspartic acid). Despite significant advances in synthetic methodology, the efficient synthesis of enantiopure αAAs carrying complex side chains, as seen in numerous peptide natural products, remains challenging. Complementary to these "conventional" strategies, a strategy based on the selective functionalization of side chain C-H bonds, particularly sp(3) hybridized C-H bonds, of various readily available αAA precursors may provide a more straightforward and broadly applicable means for the synthesis and transformation of αAAs. However, many hurdles related to the low reactivity of C(sp(3))-H bonds and the difficulty of controlling selectivity must be overcome to realize the potential of C-H functionalization chemistry in this synthetic application. Over the past few years, we have carried out a systematic investigation of palladium-catalyzed bidentate auxiliary-directed C-H functionalization reactions for αAA substrates. Our strategies utilize two different types of amide-linked auxiliary groups, attached at the N or C terminus of αAA substrates, to exert complementary regio- and stereocontrol on C-H functionalization reactions through palladacycle intermediates. A variety of αAA precursors can undergo multiple modes of C(sp(3))-H functionalization, including arylation, alkenylation, alkynylation, alkylation, alkoxylation, and intramolecular aminations, at the β, γ, and even δ positions to form new αAA products with diverse structures. In addition to transforming αAAs at previously unreachable positions, these palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization strategies enable new retrosynthetic logic for the synthesis of many basic αAAs from a common alanine precursor. This approach reduces the synthetic difficulty for many αAAs by bypassing the requirement for stereocontrol at Cα and relies on straightforward and convergent single-bond coupling transformations at the β-methyl position of alanine to access a wide range of β-monosubstituted αAAs. Moreover, these β-monosubstituted αAAs can undergo further C-H functionalization at the β-methylene position to generate various β-branched αAAs in a stereoselective and programmable fashion. These new strategies offer readily applicable methods for synthesis of challenging αAAs and may facilitate the efficient total synthesis of complex peptide natural products.

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Topics: Total synthesis (51%)

319 Citations