scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MBIO.03372-20

The Principles of Antibody Therapy for Infectious Diseases with Relevance for COVID-19.

02 Mar 2021-Mbio (American Society for Microbiology)-Vol. 12, Iss: 2, pp 1-13
Abstract: Antibody therapies such as convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies have emerged as major potential therapeutics for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Immunoglobulins differ from conventional antimicrobial agents in that they mediate direct and indirect antimicrobial effects that work in concert with other components of the immune system. The field of infectious diseases pioneered antibody therapies in the first half of the 20th century but largely abandoned them with the arrival of conventional antimicrobial therapy. Consequently, much of the knowledge gained from the historical development and use of immunoglobulins such as serum and convalescent antibody therapies was forgotten; principles and practice governing their use were not taught to new generations of medical practitioners, and further development of this modality stalled. This became apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020 when convalescent plasma was initially deployed as salvage therapy in patients with severe disease. In retrospect, this was a stage of disease when it was less likely to be effective. Lessons of the past tell us that antibody therapy is most likely to be effective when used early in respiratory diseases. This article puts forth three principles of antibody therapy, namely, specificity, temporal, and quantitative principles, connoting that antibody efficacy requires the administration of specific antibody, given early in course of disease in sufficient amount. These principles are traced to the history of serum therapy for infectious diseases. The application of the specificity, temporal, and quantitative principles to COVID-19 is discussed in the context of current use of antibody therapy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

... read more

Topics: Disease (50%), Salvage therapy (50%)
Citations
  More

14 results found


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.07.21255089
10 Apr 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with Convalescent Plasma (CCP) via the Expanded Access Program (EAP) and the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), leading to the use of CCP in some 500,000 patients during the first year of the pandemic. We tracked the number of CCP units dispensed to hospitals by blood banking organizations and correlated that usage with hospital admission and mortality data over the course of the year. CCP usage per admission peaked after issuance of the EUA, with more than 40% of inpatients estimated to have received CCP between late September and early November 2020. However, following reports of randomized controlled trials that failed to show clear benefit from CCP, usage/admissions declined steadily to a nadir of less than 10% in March 2021. We found a strong inverse correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient of -0.5176 with P = 0.00242) between CCP usage/hospital admission and deaths occurring two weeks after admission, and this finding was robust to examination of deaths taking place one, two or three weeks after admission. Changes in the number of hospital admissions, prevalence of variants, and age of patients could not explain these findings. We estimate that the retreat from CCP usage, a phenomenon we termed ‘plasma hesitancy’, might have resulted in 29,000 to 36,000 excess deaths in the period from mid-November 2020 to February 2021. These results highlight the need for additional studies to ascertain the variables associated with efficacy and/or provide other explanations for the robust relationships observed in this study.

... read more

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.684151
Abstract: Convalescent plasma has been used worldwide to treat patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and prevent disease progression. Despite global usage, uncertainty remains regarding plasma efficacy, as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have provided divergent evidence regarding the survival benefit of convalescent plasma. Here, we argue that during a global health emergency, the mosaic of evidence originating from multiple levels of the epistemic hierarchy should inform contemporary policy and healthcare decisions. Indeed, worldwide matched-control studies have generally found convalescent plasma to improve COVID-19 patient survival, and RCTs have demonstrated a survival benefit when transfused early in the disease course but limited or no benefit later in the disease course when patients required greater supportive therapies. RCTs have also revealed that convalescent plasma transfusion contributes to improved symptomatology and viral clearance. To further investigate the effect of convalescent plasma on patient mortality, we performed a meta-analytical approach to pool daily survival data from all controlled studies that reported Kaplan-Meier survival plots. Qualitative inspection of all available Kaplan-Meier survival data and an aggregate Kaplan-Meier survival plot revealed a directionally consistent pattern among studies arising from multiple levels of the epistemic hierarchy, whereby convalescent plasma transfusion was generally associated with greater patient survival. Given that convalescent plasma has a similar safety profile as standard plasma, convalescent plasma should be implemented within weeks of the onset of future infectious disease outbreaks.

... read more

8 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.03.19.436183
Juanjie Tang1, Youri Lee1, Supriya Ravichandran1, Gabrielle Grubbs1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
19 Mar 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hCoV-2IG) preparations generated from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CP) are under evaluation in several clinical trials of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Here we explored the antibody epitope repertoire, antibody binding and virus neutralizing capacity of six hCoV-2IG batches as well as nine convalescent plasma (CP) lots against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants of concern (VOC). The Gene-Fragment Phage display library spanning the SARS-CoV-2 spike demonstrated broad recognition of multiple antigenic sites spanning the entire spike including NTD, RBD, S1/S2 cleavage site, S2-fusion peptide and S2-heptad repeat regions. Antibody binding to the immunodominant epitopes was higher for hCoV-2IG than CP, with predominant binding to the fusion peptide. In the pseudovirus neutralization assay (PsVNA) and in the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 PRNT assay, hCoV-2IG lots showed higher titers against the WA-1 strain compared with CP. Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs from around the globe were reduced to different levels by hCoV-2IG lots. The most significant loss of neutralizing activity was seen against the B.1.351 (9-fold) followed by P.1 (3.5-fold), with minimal loss of activity against the B.1.17 and B.1.429 ([≤]2-fold). Again, the CP showed more pronounced loss of cross-neutralization against the VOCs compared with hCoV-2IG. Significant reduction of hCoV-2IG binding was observed to the RBD-E484K followed by RBD-N501Y and minimal loss of binding to RBD-K417N compared with unmutated RBD. This study suggests that post-exposure treatment with hCoV-2IG is preferable to CP. In countries with co-circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, identifying the infecting virus strain could inform optimal treatments, but would likely require administration of higher volumes or repeated infusions of hCOV-2IG or CP, in patients infected with the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

... read more

Topics: Neutralization (51%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7554/ELIFE.69866
04 Jun 2021-eLife
Abstract: Background: The US Food and Drug Administration authorized COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy for hospitalized COVID-19 patients via the Expanded Access Program (EAP) and the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), leading to use in about 500,000 patients during the first year of the pandemic for the USA. Methods: We tracked the number of CCP units dispensed to hospitals by blood banking organizations and correlated that usage with hospital admission and mortality data. Results: CCP usage per admission peaked in Fall 2020, with more than 40% of inpatients estimated to have received CCP between late September and early November 2020. However, after randomized controlled trials failed to show a reduction in mortality, CCP usage per admission declined steadily to a nadir of less than 10% in March 2021. We found a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.52, p=0.002) between CCP usage per hospital admission and deaths occurring 2 weeks after admission, and this finding was robust to examination of deaths taking place 1, 2, or 3 weeks after admission. Changes in the number of hospital admissions, SARS-CoV-2 variants, and age of patients could not explain these findings. The retreat from CCP usage might have resulted in as many as 29,000 excess deaths from mid-November 2020 to February 2021. Conclusions: A strong inverse correlation between CCP use and mortality per admission in the USA provides population-level evidence consistent with the notion that CCP reduces mortality in COVID-19 and suggests that the recent decline in usage could have resulted in excess deaths. Funding: There was no specific funding for this study. AC was supported in part by RO1 HL059842 and R01 AI1520789; MJJ was supported in part by 5R35HL139854. This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Department of Health and Human Services; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority under Contract No. 75A50120C00096.

... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ISCI.2021.103006
Juanjie Tang1, Youri Lee1, Supriya Ravichandran1, Gabrielle Grubbs1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
20 Aug 2021-iScience
Abstract: Hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hCoV-2IG) generated from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma (CP) are under evaluation in clinical trials. Here we explored the antibody epitope repertoire, and virus neutralizing capacity of six hCoV-2IG batches as well as nine convalescent plasma (CP) against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants of concern (VOC). Epitope-mapping by Gene-Fragment-Phage display library (GFPDL) spanning the SARS-CoV-2 spike demonstrated broad recognition of multiple antigenic sites spanning the entire spike, that was higher for hCoV-2IG than CP, with predominant binding to the fusion peptide. In the pseudovirus neutralization assay (PsVNA) and in the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 PRNT assay, hCoV-2IG lots showed higher titers against the WA-1 strain compared with CP. Neutralization of VOCs were reduced to different extent by hCoV-2IG lots but were higher than CP. Significant reduction of hCoV-2IG binding was observed to RBD-E484K followed by RBD-N501Y (but not RBD-K417N). This study suggests that post-exposure treatment with hCoV-2IG could be preferable to CP.

... read more

Topics: Neutralization (52%), Epitope (51%)

3 Citations


References
  More

76 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2004168117
Kai Duan1, Bende Liu, Li Cesheng, Huajun Zhang2  +44 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Currently, there are no approved specific antiviral agents for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, 10 severe patients confirmed by real-time viral RNA test were enrolled prospectively. One dose of 200 mL of convalescent plasma (CP) derived from recently recovered donors with the neutralizing antibody titers above 1:640 was transfused to the patients as an addition to maximal supportive care and antiviral agents. The primary endpoint was the safety of CP transfusion. The second endpoints were the improvement of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters within 3 d after CP transfusion. The median time from onset of illness to CP transfusion was 16.5 d. After CP transfusion, the level of neutralizing antibody increased rapidly up to 1:640 in five cases, while that of the other four cases maintained at a high level (1:640). The clinical symptoms were significantly improved along with increase of oxyhemoglobin saturation within 3 d. Several parameters tended to improve as compared to pretransfusion, including increased lymphocyte counts (0.65 × 109/L vs. 0.76 × 109/L) and decreased C-reactive protein (55.98 mg/L vs. 18.13 mg/L). Radiological examinations showed varying degrees of absorption of lung lesions within 7 d. The viral load was undetectable after transfusion in seven patients who had previous viremia. No severe adverse effects were observed. This study showed CP therapy was well tolerated and could potentially improve the clinical outcomes through neutralizing viremia in severe COVID-19 cases. The optimal dose and time point, as well as the clinical benefit of CP therapy, needs further investigation in larger well-controlled trials.

... read more

Topics: Viral load (51%), Respiratory pharmacology (50%)

1,375 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2349-Y
18 May 2020-Nature
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerged coronavirus that is responsible for the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has resulted in more than 3.7 million infections and 260,000 deaths as of 6 May 20201,2. Vaccine and therapeutic discovery efforts are paramount to curb the pandemic spread of this zoonotic virus. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes entry into host cells and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe several monoclonal antibodies that target the S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, which we identified from memory B cells of an individual who was infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003. One antibody (named S309) potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV pseudoviruses as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2, by engaging the receptor-binding domain of the S glycoprotein. Using cryo-electron microscopy and binding assays, we show that S309 recognizes an epitope containing a glycan that is conserved within the Sarbecovirus subgenus, without competing with receptor attachment. Antibody cocktails that include S309 in combination with other antibodies that we identified further enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, and may limit the emergence of neutralization-escape mutants. These results pave the way for using S309 and antibody cocktails containing S309 for prophylaxis in individuals at a high risk of exposure or as a post-exposure therapy to limit or treat severe disease.

... read more

Topics: Coronavirus (64%), Entry into host (54%), Epitope (53%) ... read more

899 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.10044
Ling Li1, Zhang Wei2, Yu Hu3, Xunliang Tong  +30 moreInstitutions (7)
04 Aug 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Convalescent plasma is a potential therapeutic option for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but further data from randomized clinical trials are needed. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants Open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial performed in 7 medical centers in Wuhan, China, from February 14, 2020, to April 1, 2020, with final follow-up April 28, 2020. The trial included 103 participants with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 that was severe (respiratory distress and/or hypoxemia) or life-threatening (shock, organ failure, or requiring mechanical ventilation). The trial was terminated early after 103 of a planned 200 patients were enrolled. Intervention Convalescent plasma in addition to standard treatment (n = 52) vs standard treatment alone (control) (n = 51), stratified by disease severity. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was time to clinical improvement within 28 days, defined as patient discharged alive or reduction of 2 points on a 6-point disease severity scale (ranging from 1 [discharge] to 6 [death]). Secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, time to discharge, and the rate of viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results turned from positive at baseline to negative at up to 72 hours. Results Of 103 patients who were randomized (median age, 70 years; 60 [58.3%] male), 101 (98.1%) completed the trial. Clinical improvement occurred within 28 days in 51.9% (27/52) of the convalescent plasma group vs 43.1% (22/51) in the control group (difference, 8.8% [95% CI, −10.4% to 28.0%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% CI, 0.79-2.49];P = .26). Among those with severe disease, the primary outcome occurred in 91.3% (21/23) of the convalescent plasma group vs 68.2% (15/22) of the control group (HR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.07-4.32];P = .03); among those with life-threatening disease the primary outcome occurred in 20.7% (6/29) of the convalescent plasma group vs 24.1% (7/29) of the control group (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.30-2.63];P = .83) (Pfor interaction = .17). There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality (15.7% vs 24.0%; OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.22-1.59];P = .30) or time from randomization to discharge (51.0% vs 36.0% discharged by day 28; HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 0.88-2.95];P = .12). Convalescent plasma treatment was associated with a negative conversion rate of viral PCR at 72 hours in 87.2% of the convalescent plasma group vs 37.5% of the control group (OR, 11.39 [95% CI, 3.91-33.18];P Conclusion and Relevance Among patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy added to standard treatment, compared with standard treatment alone, did not result in a statistically significant improvement in time to clinical improvement within 28 days. Interpretation is limited by early termination of the trial, which may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry:ChiCTR2000029757

... read more

840 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1910993
Sabue Mulangu, Lori E. Dodd1, Richard T. Davey, Tshiani Mbaya O2  +47 moreInstitutions (8)
Abstract: Background Although several experimental therapeutics for Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been developed, the safety and efficacy of the most promising therapies need to be assessed in the ...

... read more

Topics: Ebola virus (64%)

815 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABC6952
Chi Xiangyang1, Renhong Yan2, Jun Zhang1, Zhang Guanying1  +20 moreInstitutions (3)
22 Jun 2020-Science
Abstract: Developing therapeutics against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be guided by the distribution of epitopes, not only on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein but also across the full Spike (S) protein We isolated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent COVID-19 patients Three mAbs showed neutralizing activities against authentic SARS-CoV-2 One mAb, named 4A8, exhibits high neutralization potency against both authentic and pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 but does not bind the RBD We defined the epitope of 4A8 as the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein by determining with cryo-eletron microscopy its structure in complex with the S protein to an overall resolution of 31 angstroms and local resolution of 33 angstroms for the 4A8-NTD interface This points to the NTD as a promising target for therapeutic mAbs against COVID-19

... read more

Topics: Epitope (54%), Protein domain (52%), Coronavirus (50%)

756 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202114