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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSCENTSCI.1C00146

Development of Triantennary N-Acetylgalactosamine Conjugates as Degraders for Extracellular Proteins

04 Mar 2021-ACS central science (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 7, Iss: 3, pp 499-506
Abstract: Targeted protein degradation (TPD) technology has drawn significant attention from researchers in both academia and industry. It is rapidly evolved as a new therapeutic modality and also a useful chemical tool in selectively depleting various protein targets. As most efforts focus on cytosolic proteins using PROteolysis TArgeting Chimera (PROTAC), LYsosome TArgeting Chimera (LYTAC) recently emerged as a promising technology to deliver extracellular protein targets to lysosome for degradation through the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). In this study, we exploited the potential of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), a lysosomal targeting receptor specifically expressed on liver cells, for the degradation of extracellular proteins including membrane proteins. The ligand of ASGPR, triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine (tri-GalNAc), was conjugated to biotin, antibodies, or fragments of antibodies to generate a new class of degraders. We demonstrated that the extracellular protein targets could be successfully internalized and delivered into lysosome for degradation in liver cell lines specifically by these degraders. This work will add a new dimension to TPD with cell type specificity.

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Topics: Protein degradation (60%), Proteolysis targeting chimera (57%), Liver cell (54%) ... read more

10 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JBC.2021.100647
Shanique B. Alabi1, Craig M. Crews1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Of late, targeted protein degradation (TPD) has surfaced as a novel and innovative chemical tool and therapeutic modality. By co-opting protein degradation pathways, TPD facilitates complete removal of the protein molecules from within or outside the cell. While the pioneering Proteolysis-Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) technology and molecular glues hijack the ubiquitin-proteasome system, newer modalities co-opt autophagy or the endo-lysosomal pathway. Using this mechanism, TPD is posited to largely expand the druggable space far beyond small-molecule inhibitors. In this review, we discuss the major advances in TPD, highlight our current understanding, and explore outstanding questions in the field.

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9 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41589-021-00851-1
David Caianiello1, Mengwen Zhang1, Jason Ray1, Rebecca Howell1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Targeted protein degradation (TPD) has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Most TPD technologies use the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and are therefore limited to targeting intracellular proteins. To address this limitation, we developed a class of modular, bifunctional synthetic molecules called MoDE-As (molecular degraders of extracellular proteins through the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)), which mediate the degradation of extracellular proteins. MoDE-A molecules mediate the formation of a ternary complex between a target protein and ASGPR on hepatocytes. The target protein is then endocytosed and degraded by lysosomal proteases. We demonstrated the modularity of the MoDE-A technology by synthesizing molecules that induce depletion of both antibody and proinflammatory cytokine proteins. These data show experimental evidence that nonproteinogenic, synthetic molecules can enable TPD of extracellular proteins in vitro and in vivo. We believe that TPD mediated by the MoDE-A technology will have widespread applications for disease treatment.

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Topics: Protein degradation (57%), Target protein (55%), Ternary complex (51%) ... read more

3 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMBIOL.2021.02.024
Abstract: Targeted protein degradation (TPD) is a promising strategy to remove deleterious proteins for therapeutic benefit and to probe biological pathways. The past two decades have witnessed a surge in the development of technologies that rely on intracellular machinery to degrade challenging cytosolic targets. However, these TPD platforms leave the majority of extracellular and membrane proteins untouched. To enable degradation of these classes of proteins, internalizing receptors can be co-opted to traffic extracellular proteins to the lysosome. Sweeping antibodies and Seldegs use Fc receptors in conjunction with engineered antibodies to degrade soluble proteins. Recently, lysosome-targeting chimeras (LYTACs) have emerged as a strategy to degrade both secreted and membrane-anchored targets. Together with other newcomer technologies, including antibody-based proteolysis-targeting chimeras, modalities that degrade extracellular proteins have promising translational potential. This perspective will give an overview of TPD platforms that degrade proteins via outside-in approaches and focus on the recent development of LYTACs.

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Topics: Membrane protein (57%), Protein degradation (56%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7150/THNO.62686
Jiayi Lin1, Jinmei Jin1, Yi-Wen Shen1, Li-Jun Zhang1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Jan 2021-Theranostics
Abstract: Classic small molecule inhibitors that directly target pathogenic proteins typically rely on the accessible binding sites to achieve prolonged occupancy and influence protein functions. The emerging targeted protein degradation (TPD) strategies exemplified by PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) are revolutionizing conventional drug discovery modality to target proteins of interest (POIs) that were categorized as "undruggable" before, however, these strategies are limited within intracellular POIs. The novel new degrader technologies such as LYsosome-TArgeting Chimaeras (LYTACs) and Antibody-based PROTACs (AbTACs) have been successfully developed to expand the scope of TPD to extracellular and membrane proteins, fulfilling huge unmet medical needs. Here, we systematically review the currently viable protein degradation strategies, emphasize that LYTACs and AbTACs turn a new avenue for the development of TPD, and highlight the potential challenges and directions in this vibrant field.

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Topics: Protein degradation (60%)

1 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.BIOCHEM.1C00330
Katelyn Cassidy1, Heng Zhao1Institutions (1)
27 Sep 2021-Biochemistry
Abstract: The advent of multi-specific targeted protein degradation (TPD) therapies has made it possible to drug targets that have long been considered to be inaccessible. For this reason, the foremost TPD modalities - molecular glues and proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) -have been widely adopted and developed in therapeutic programs across the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. While there are many clear advantages to these two approaches, there are also blind spots. Specifically, PROTACs and molecular glues are inherently mechanistically analogous in that targets of both are degraded via the 26s proteasome; however, not all disease-relevant targets are suitable for ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-mediated degradation. The alternative mammalian protein degradation pathway, the autophagy-lysosome system (or ALS), is capable of degrading targets that elude the UPS such as long-lived proteins, insoluble protein aggregates, and even abnormal organelles. Emerging TPD strategies- such as ATTEC, AUTAC, and LYTAC- take advantage of the substrate diversity of the ALS to greatly expand the clinical utility of TPD. In this Perspective, we will discuss the array of current TPD modalities, with a focus on critical evaluation of these novel ALS-mediated degradation techniques.

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Topics: Protein degradation (61%)


41 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(94)90462-6
Kenneth L. Rock1, Colette F. Gramm1, Lisa Rothstein1, Karen Clark1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
09 Sep 1994-Cell
Abstract: Reagents that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in cells have not been available. Peptide aldehydes that inhibit major peptidase activities of the 20S and 26S proteasomes are shown to reduce the degradation of protein and ubiquitinated protein substrates by 26S particles. Unlike inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis, these compounds inhibit the degradation of not only abnormal and short-lived polypeptides but also long-lived proteins in intact cells. We used these agents to test the importance of the proteasome in antigen presentation. When ovalbumin is introduced into the cytosol of lymphoblasts, these inhibitors block the presentation on MHC class I molecules of an ovalbumin-derived peptide by preventing its proteolytic generation. By preventing peptide production from cell proteins, these inhibitors block the assembly of class I molecules. Therefore, the proteasome catalyzes the degradation of the vast majority of cell proteins and generates most peptides presented on MHC class I molecules.

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Topics: MHC class I (68%), Antigen processing (63%), Antigen presentation (56%) ... read more

2,434 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(00)76630-6
Abstract: The solution properties, including hydrodynamic quantities and the radius of gyration, of globular proteins are calculated from their detailed, atomic-level structure, using bead-modeling methodologies described in our previous article (, Biophys. J. 76:3044-3057). We review how this goal has been pursued by other authors in the past. Our procedure starts from a list of atomic coordinates, from which we build a primary hydrodynamic model by replacing nonhydrogen atoms with spherical elements of some fixed radius. The resulting particle, consisting of overlapping spheres, is in turn represented by a shell model treated as described in our previous work. We have applied this procedure to a set of 13 proteins. For each protein, the atomic element radius is adjusted, to fit all of the hydrodynamic properties, taking values close to 3 A, with deviations that fall within the error of experimental data. Some differences are found in the atomic element radius found for each protein, which can be explained in terms of protein hydration. A computational shortcut makes the procedure feasible, even in personal computers. All of the model-building and calculations are carried out with a HYDROPRO public-domain computer program.

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Topics: Radius of gyration (55%), Radius (53%), Globular protein (52%)

1,022 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.141230798
Abstract: The intracellular levels of many proteins are regulated by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. One of the best-characterized enzymes that catalyzes the attachment of ubiquitin to proteins is a ubiquitin ligase complex, Skp1-Cullin-F box complex containing Hrt1 (SCF). We sought to artificially target a protein to the SCF complex for ubiquitination and degradation. To this end, we tested methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2), which covalently binds the angiogenesis inhibitor ovalicin. A chimeric compound, protein-targeting chimeric molecule 1 (Protac-1), was synthesized to recruit MetAP-2 to SCF. One domain of Protac-1 contains the IκBα phosphopeptide that is recognized by the F-box protein β-TRCP, whereas the other domain is composed of ovalicin. We show that MetAP-2 can be tethered to SCFβ-TRCP, ubiquitinated, and degraded in a Protac-1-dependent manner. In the future, this approach may be useful for conditional inactivation of proteins, and for targeting disease-causing proteins for destruction.

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Topics: SCF complex (67%), F-box protein (64%), Ubiquitin ligase complex (64%) ... read more

822 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0021-9258(18)33240-X
Abstract: A series of synthetic oligosaccharides, resembling natural N-acetyllactosamine type glycans, were tested for their ability to inhibit the binding of labeled ligand to the mammalian hepatic lectin on rabbit hepatocytes at 2 degrees C. A dramatic hierarchy of inhibitory potency (tetraantennary greater than triantennary much greater than biantennary much greater than monoantennary) could be demonstrated. The range of concentration required for 50% inhibition of labeled ligand binding extended from approximately 1 mM, for the monoantennary oligosaccharides, to approximately 1 nM for triantennary oligosaccharides, even though the absolute Gal concentration increased only 3-fold. It was found that the number of Gal residues/cluster and their branching mode are major determinants of binding affinity of ligands to the hepatic lectin on the surface of hepatocytes.

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Topics: Ligand (biochemistry) (53%), Lectin (52%)

455 Citations

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