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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2020.627379

Metastatic Spread in Prostate Cancer Patients Influencing Radiotherapy Response.

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Oncology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 10, pp 627379-627379
Abstract: Radiotherapy and surgery are curative treatment options for localized prostate cancer (PCa) with a 5-year survival rate of nearly 100%. Once PCa cells spread into distant organs, such as bone, the overall survival rate of patients drops dramatically. The metastatic cascade and organotropism of PCa cells are regulated by different cellular subtypes, organ microenvironment, and their interactions. This cross-talk leads to pre-metastatic niche formation that releases chemo-attractive factors enforcing the formation of distant metastasis. Biological characteristics of PCa metastasis impacting on metastatic sites, burden, and latency is of clinical relevance. Therefore, the implementation of modern hybrid imaging technologies into clinical routine increased the sensitivity to detect metastases at earlier stages. This enlarged the number of PCa patients diagnosed with a limited number of metastases, summarized as oligometastatic disease. These patients can be treated with androgen deprivation in combination with local-ablative radiotherapy or radiopharmaceuticals directed to metastatic sites. Unfortunately, the number of patients with disease recurrence is high due to the enormous heterogeneity within the oligometastatic patient population and the lack of available biomarkers with predictive potential for metastasis-directed radiotherapy. Another, so far unmet clinical need is the diagnosis of minimal residual disease before onset of clinical manifestation and/or early relapse after initial therapy. Here, monitoring of circulating and disseminating tumor cells in PCa patients during the course of radiotherapy may give us novel insight into how metastatic spread is influenced by radiotherapy and vice versa. In summary, this review critically compares current clinical concepts for metastatic PCa patients and discuss the implementation of recent preclinical findings improving our understanding of metastatic dissemination and radiotherapy resistance into standard of care.

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Topics: Survival rate (53%), Radiation therapy (52%), Prostate cancer (52%) ... show more

5 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13092011
22 Apr 2021-Cancers
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the required absorbed doses to detectable metastases (Dreq) when using radionuclides with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radioligands to achieve a high probability for metastatic control. The Monte Carlo based analysis was performed for the clinically-used radionuclides yttrium-90, iodine-131, lutetium-177, and actinium-225, and the newly-proposed low-energy electron emitter terbium-161. It was demonstrated that metastatic formation rate highly influenced the metastatic distribution. Lower values generated few large detectable metastases, as in the case with oligo metastases, while high values generated a distribution of multiple small detectable metastases, as observed in patients with diffused visualized metastases. With equal number of detectable metastases, the total metastatic volume burden was 4-6 times higher in the oligo metastatic scenario compared to the diffusely visualized scenario. The Dreq was around 30% higher for the situations with 20 detectable metastases compared to one detectable metastasis. The Dreq for iodine-131 and yttrium-90 was high (920-3300 Gy). The Dreq for lutetium-177 was between 560 and 780 Gy and considerably lower Dreq were obtained for actinium-225 and terbium-161, with 240-330 Gy and 210-280 Gy, respectively. In conclusion, the simulations demonstrated that terbium-161 has the potential for being a more effective targeted radionuclide therapy for metastases using PSMA ligands.

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Topics: Radionuclide therapy (56%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.618540
Qinghong Zhou1, Mingsheng Liu1, Tao Shao1, Pingbo Xie1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The prognosis for endocrine-independent prostate carcinoma is still poor due to its highly metastatic feature. In the present work, TPX2 (the targeting protein for Xklp2), which is known as a micro-tubulin interacted protein, was identified as a novel coactivator of ETS-1, a transcription factor that plays a central role in mediating the metastasis of human malignancies. TPX2 enhanced the transcription factor activation of ETS-1 and increased the expression of ETS-1's downstream metastasis-related genes, such as mmp3 or mmp9, induced by HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), a typical agonist of the HGF/c-MET/ETS-1 pathway. The protein-interaction between TPX2 and ETS-1 was examined using immunoprecipitation (IP). TPX2 enhanced the accumulation of ETS-1 in the nuclear and the recruitment of its binding element (EST binding site, EBS) located in the promoter region of its downstream gene, mmp9. Moreover, TPX2 enhanced the in vitro or in vivo invasion of a typical endocrine-independent prostate carcinoma cell line, PC-3. Therefore, TPX2 enhanced the activation of the HGF/ETS-1 pathway to enhance the invasion of endocrine-independent prostate carcinoma cells and thus it would be a promising target for prostate carcinoma treatment.

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Topics: Hepatocyte growth factor (55%), Transcription factor (55%), Coactivator (54%) ... show more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EUO.2021.10.002
Tobias Hölscher1, Michael Baumann2, Jörg Kotzerke1, Klaus Zöphel3  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: BACKGROUND Local ablative radiotherapy (aRT) of oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is very promising and has become a focus of current clinical research. OBJECTIVE We hypothesize that aRT is safe and effective in gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET)-staged oligometastatic PCa patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A nonrandomized, prospective, investigator-initiated phase 2 trial recruited patients with oligometastatic PCa (five or fewer lymph node or osseous metastases) after local curative therapy, without significant comorbidity and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), at two German centers from 2014 to 2018. INTERVENTION All PSMA-PET-positive metastases were treated with aRT. No systemic therapy was initiated. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The primary endpoint was treatment-related toxicity (grade ≥2) 24 mo after aRT. A one-sided single-sample test of proportions was planned to test whether the endpoint occurs in <15% of the patients. Key secondary endpoints were time to progression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and time to ADT, which were associated with potential prognostic factors by Cox regression. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS Of 72 patients, 63 received aRT (13% dropout rate). The median follow-up was 37.2 mo. No treatment-related grade ≥2 toxicity was observed 2 yr after treatment. The median time to PSA progression and time to ADT were 13.2 and 20.6 mo, respectively. Of the patients, 21.4% were free of PSA progression after 3 yr. CONCLUSIONS It was observed that aRT is safe, and midterm PSA progression and ADT-free time were achieved in one of five patients. Randomized clinical trials are indicated to further evaluate the option of delaying ADT in selected patients. PATIENT SUMMARY In this clinical trial, 63 patients with up to five metastases of prostate cancer without androgen deprivation therapy were included. We showed that local ablative radiotherapy is safe and that one in five patients had no recurrent prostate-specific antigen value after 3 yr. Local ablative radiotherapy might be an option to avoid systemic therapy in selected patients.

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Topics: Androgen deprivation therapy (59%), Prostate cancer (55%), Clinical endpoint (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13163967
05 Aug 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer among men, with 1.3 million yearly cases worldwide. Among those cancer-afflicted men, 30% will develop metastases and some will progress into metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), which is associated with a poor prognosis and median survival time that ranges from nine to 13 months. Nevertheless, the discovery of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a marker overexpressed in the majority of prostatic cancerous tissue, revolutionised PC care. Ever since, PSMA-targeted radionuclide therapy has gained remarkable international visibility in translational oncology. Furthermore, on first clinical application, it has shown significant influence on therapeutic management and patient care in metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer, a disease that previously had remained immedicable. In this article, we provide a general overview of the main milestones in the development of ligands for PSMA-targeted radionuclide therapy, ranging from the firstly developed monoclonal antibodies to the current state-of-the-art low molecular weight entities conjugated with various radionuclides, as well as potential future efforts related to PSMA-targeted radionuclide therapy.

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Topics: Radionuclide therapy (66%), Prostate cancer (60%), Cancer (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.744679
Luc Ollivier1, Maureen Labbé1, Delphine Fradin1, Vincent Potiron1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and a leading cause of cancer-related death. In recent decades, the development of immunotherapies has resulted in great promise to cure metastatic disease. However, prostate cancer has failed to show any significant response, presumably due to its immunosuppressive microenvironment. There is therefore growing interest in combining immunotherapy with other therapies able to relieve the immunosuppressive microenvironment. Radiation therapy remains the mainstay treatment for prostate cancer patients, is known to exhibit immunomodulatory effects, depending on the dose, and is a potent inducer of immunogenic tumor cell death. Optimal doses of radiotherapy are thus expected to unleash the full potential of immunotherapy, improving primary target destruction with further hope of inducing immune-cell-mediated elimination of metastases at distance from the irradiated site. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on both the tumor immune microenvironment in prostate cancer and the effects of radiotherapy on it, as well as on the use of immunotherapy. In addition, we discuss the utility to combine immunotherapy and radiotherapy to treat oligometastatic metastatic prostate cancer.

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Topics: Prostate cancer (59%), Cancer (58%), Radiation therapy (56%) ... show more

275 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2011.02.013
Douglas Hanahan1, Robert A. Weinberg2Institutions (2)
04 Mar 2011-Cell
Abstract: The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

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42,275 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2009.11.007
25 Nov 2009-Cell
Abstract: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and in the differentiation of multiple tissues and organs. EMT also contributes to tissue repair, but it can adversely cause organ fibrosis and promote carcinoma progression through a variety of mechanisms. EMT endows cells with migratory and invasive properties, induces stem cell properties, prevents apoptosis and senescence, and contributes to immunosuppression. Thus, the mesenchymal state is associated with the capacity of cells to migrate to distant organs and maintain stemness, allowing their subsequent differentiation into multiple cell types during development and the initiation of metastasis.

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7,809 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04046-0
17 Feb 2001-The Lancet
Abstract: The response of the body to a cancer is not a unique mechanism but has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. This article reviews the links between cancer and inflammation and discusses the implications of these links for cancer prevention and treatment. We suggest that the inflammatory cells and cytokines found in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression than they are to mount an effective host antitumour response. Moreover cancer susceptibility and severity may be associated with functional polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokine genes, and deletion or inhibition of inflammatory cytokines inhibits development of experimental cancer. If genetic damage is the "match that lights the fire" of cancer, some types of inflammation may provide the "fuel that feeds the flames". Over the past ten years information about the cytokine and chemokine network has led to development of a range of cytokine/chemokine antagonists targeted at inflammatory and allergic diseases. The first of these to enter the clinic, tumour necrosis factor antagonists, have shown encouraging efficacy. In this article we have provided a rationale for the use of cytokine and chemokine blockade, and further investigation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in the chemoprevention and treatment of malignant diseases.

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Topics: Proinflammatory cytokine (57%), Cancer (57%), Cytokine (55%) ... show more

6,177 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2010.03.014
Bin-Zhi Qian1, Jeffrey W. Pollard1Institutions (1)
02 Apr 2010-Cell
Abstract: There is persuasive clinical and experimental evidence that macrophages promote cancer initiation and malignant progression. During tumor initiation, they create an inflammatory environment that is mutagenic and promotes growth. As tumors progress to malignancy, macrophages stimulate angiogenesis, enhance tumor cell migration and invasion, and suppress antitumor immunity. At metastatic sites, macrophages prepare the target tissue for arrival of tumor cells, and then a different subpopulation of macrophages promotes tumor cell extravasation, survival, and subsequent growth. Specialized subpopulations of macrophages may represent important new therapeutic targets.

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Topics: Tumor progression (63%), Tumor initiation (59%), Tumor-associated macrophage (59%) ... show more

3,381 Citations

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