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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSOMEGA.0C05421

MXene-Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Sensing of Influenza Virus and SARS-CoV-2

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 6, Iss: 10, pp 6643-6653
Abstract: An MXene-graphene field-effect transistor (FET) sensor for both influenza virus and 2019-nCoV sensing was developed and characterized. The developed sensor combines the high chemical sensitivity of MXene and the continuity of large-area high-quality graphene to form an ultra-sensitive virus-sensing transduction material (VSTM). Through polymer linking, we are able to utilize antibody-antigen binding to achieve electrochemical signal transduction when viruses are deposited onto the VSTM surface. The MXene-graphene VSTM was integrated into a microfluidic channel that can directly receive viruses in solution. The developed sensor was tested with various concentrations of antigens from two viruses: inactivated influenza A (H1N1) HA virus ranging from 125 to 250,000 copies/mL and a recombinant 2019-nCoV spike protein ranging from 1 fg/mL to 10 pg/mL. The average response time was about ∼50 ms, which is significantly faster than the existing real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method (>3 h). The low limit of detection (125 copies/mL for the influenza virus and 1 fg/mL for the recombinant 2019-nCoV spike protein) has demonstrated the sensitivity of the MXene-graphene VSTM on the FET platform to virus sensing. Especially, the high signal-to-viral load ratio (∼10% change in source-drain current and gate voltage) also demonstrates the ultra-sensitivity of the developed MXene-graphene FET sensor. In addition, the specificity of the sensor was also demonstrated by depositing the inactivated influenza A (H1N1) HA virus and the recombinant 2019-nCoV spike protein onto microfluidic channels with opposite antibodies, producing signal differences that are about 10 times lower. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a relatively low-cost, ultrasensitive, fast-responding, and specific inactivated influenza A (H1N1) and 2019-nCoV sensor with the MXene-graphene VSTM.

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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.02.26.21252546
01 Mar 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) are increasingly being integrated in testing strategies around the world. Studies of the Ag-RDTs have shown variable performance. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the clinical accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of commercially available Ag-RDTs. Methods We registered the review on PROSPERO (Registration number: CRD42020225140). We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, medRvix and bioRvix, FINDdx) for publications up until December 11th, 2020. Descriptive analyses of all studies were performed and when more than four studies were available, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity in comparison to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. We assessed heterogeneity by subgroup analyses ((1) performed con-form with manufacturer’s instructions for use (IFU) or not, (2) symptomatic vs. asymptomatic, (3) duration of symptoms less than seven days vs. more than seven days, (4) Ct-value Results From a total of 11,715 articles, we extracted 98 analytical and clinical data sets. 74 clinical accuracy data sets were evaluated that included 31,202 samples. Across all meta-analyzed samples, the pooled Ag-RDT sensitivity was 73.8% (CI 68.6 to 78.5). If analysis was restricted to studies that followed the Ag-RDT manufacturers’ instructions using fresh upper respiratory swab samples, the sensitivity increased to 79.1% (95%CI 75.0 to 82.8). The SD Biosensor Standard Q and Abbott Panbio showed the highest sensitivity with 81.7% and 72.7%, respectively. The best Ag-RDT performance was found with nasopharyngeal sampling (77.3%, CI 72.0 to 81.9) in comparison to other sample types (e.g., anterior nasal or mid turbinate 63.5%, CI 49.5 to 75.5). Testing in the first week from symptom onset resulted in higher sensitivity (87.5%, CI 86.0 to 89.1) compared to testing after one week (64.1%, CI 54.4 to 73.8). The tests performed markedly better on samples with lower Ct-values, i.e., Conclusion As Ag-RDTs detect most cases within the first week of symptom onset and those with high viral load, they can have high utility for screening purposes in the early phase of disease, and thus can be a valuable tool to fight the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Standardization of conduct and reporting of clinical accuracy studies would improve comparability and use of data. Summary In this living systematic review we analyzed 98 data sets for performance of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs compared to RT-PCR. Best-performing tests achieved a sensitivity of 81.7%. Highest sensitivity was found in patients within seven days of symptom onset when NP swabs were utilized.

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17 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1003735
12 Aug 2021-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: Background SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) are increasingly being integrated in testing strategies around the world. Studies of the Ag-RDTs have shown variable performance. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the clinical accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of commercially available Ag-RDTs. Methods and findings We registered the review on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020225140). We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, medRvix, bioRvix, and FIND) for publications evaluating the accuracy of Ag-RDTs for SARS-CoV-2 up until 30 April 2021. Descriptive analyses of all studies were performed, and when more than 4 studies were available, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity in comparison to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. We assessed heterogeneity by subgroup analyses, and rated study quality and risk of bias using the QUADAS-2 assessment tool. From a total of 14,254 articles, we included 133 analytical and clinical studies resulting in 214 clinical accuracy datasets with 112,323 samples. Across all meta-analyzed samples, the pooled Ag-RDT sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% (95% CI 68.2% to 74.0%) and 98.9% (95% CI 98.6% to 99.1%), respectively. Sensitivity increased to 76.3% (95% CI 73.1% to 79.2%) if analysis was restricted to studies that followed the Ag-RDT manufacturers’ instructions. LumiraDx showed the highest sensitivity, with 88.2% (95% CI 59.0% to 97.5%). Of instrument-free Ag-RDTs, Standard Q nasal performed best, with 80.2% sensitivity (95% CI 70.3% to 87.4%). Across all Ag-RDTs, sensitivity was markedly better on samples with lower RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, i.e., <20 (96.5%, 95% CI 92.6% to 98.4%) and <25 (95.8%, 95% CI 92.3% to 97.8%), in comparison to those with Ct ≥ 25 (50.7%, 95% CI 35.6% to 65.8%) and ≥30 (20.9%, 95% CI 12.5% to 32.8%). Testing in the first week from symptom onset resulted in substantially higher sensitivity (83.8%, 95% CI 76.3% to 89.2%) compared to testing after 1 week (61.5%, 95% CI 52.2% to 70.0%). The best Ag-RDT sensitivity was found with anterior nasal sampling (75.5%, 95% CI 70.4% to 79.9%), in comparison to other sample types (e.g., nasopharyngeal, 71.6%, 95% CI 68.1% to 74.9%), although CIs were overlapping. Concerns of bias were raised across all datasets, and financial support from the manufacturer was reported in 24.1% of datasets. Our analysis was limited by the included studies’ heterogeneity in design and reporting. Conclusions In this study we found that Ag-RDTs detect the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected persons within the first week of symptom onset and those with high viral load. Thus, they can have high utility for diagnostic purposes in the early phase of disease, making them a valuable tool to fight the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Standardization in conduct and reporting of clinical accuracy studies would improve comparability and use of data.

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12 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATLET.2021.130656
01 Dec 2021-Materials Letters
Abstract: The success of internet-of-things (IoT)-assisted wearable biomedical electronics demands novel high-performance biosensing prototypes which depend on smart opto-electric-nanosystems. In this direction, 2D MXenes (early transition metal carbides/nitrides) have recently emerged as materials of choice to investigate biosensors of desired performance due to high electro-conductivity, hydrophilicity, and versatile surface chemistry. This letter highlights recent advances and current challenges to project MXenes for next generation biosensing based on unfurled potentials and novel bio-analytical technologies.

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Topics: MXenes (58%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CHEMOSENSORS9070162
25 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Electrochemical immunosensors (EI) have been widely investigated in the last several years. Among them, immunosensors based on low-dimensional materials (LDM) stand out, as they could provide a substantial gain in fabricating point-of-care devices, paving the way for fast, precise, and sensitive diagnosis of numerous severe illnesses. The high surface area available in LDMs makes it possible to immobilize a high density of bioreceptors, improving the sensitivity in biorecognition events between antibodies and antigens. If on the one hand, many works present promising results in using LDMs as a sensing material in EIs, on the other hand, very few of them discuss the fundamental interactions involved at the interfaces. Understanding the fundamental Chemistry and Physics of the interactions between the surface of LDMs and the bioreceptors, and how the operating conditions and biorecognition events affect those interactions, is vital when proposing new devices. Here, we present a review of recent works on EIs, focusing on devices that use LDMs (1D and 2D) as the sensing substrate. To do so, we highlight both experimental and theoretical aspects, bringing to light the fundamental aspects of the main interactions occurring at the interfaces and the operating mechanisms in which the detections are based.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADHM.202100970
Angga Hermawan1, Angga Hermawan2, Tahta Amrillah3, Anung Riapanitra4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: A fully integrated, flexible, and functional sensing device for exhaled breath analysis drastically transforms conventional medical diagnosis to non-invasive, low-cost, real-time, and personalized health care. 2D materials based on MXenes offer multiple advantages for accurately detecting various breath biomarkers compared to conventional semiconducting oxides. High surface sensitivity, large surface-to-weight ratio, room temperature detection, and easy-to-assemble structures are vital parameters for such sensing devices in which MXenes have demonstrated all these properties both experimentally and theoretically. So far, MXenes-based flexible sensor is successfully fabricated at a lab-scale and is predicted to be translated into clinical practice within the next few years. This review presents a potential application of MXenes as emerging materials for flexible and wearable sensor devices. The biomarkers from exhaled breath are described first, with emphasis on metabolic processes and diseases indicated by abnormal biomarkers. Then, biomarkers sensing performances provided by MXenes families and the enhancement strategies are discussed. The method of fabrications toward MXenes integration into various flexible substrates is summarized. Finally, the fundamental challenges and prospects, including portable integration with Internet-of-Thing (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), are addressed to realize marketization.

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Topics: MXenes (57%)

3 Citations


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54 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1102896
Kostya S. Novoselov1, Andre K. Geim1, Sergey V. Morozov, Da Jiang1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
22 Oct 2004-Science
Abstract: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.

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Topics: Carbon film (57%), Hall effect (55%), Ambipolar diffusion (54%) ... read more

48,846 Citations


01 Jan 2000-Electrophoresis
Abstract: Microfluidic devices are finding increasing application as analytical systems, biomedical devices, tools for chemistry and biochemistry, and systems for fundamental research. Conventional methods of fabricating microfluidic devices have centered on etching in glass and silicon. Fabrication of microfluidic devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography provides faster, less expensive routes than these conventional methods to devices that handle aqueous solutions. These soft-lithographic methods are based on rapid prototyping and replica molding and are more accessible to chemists and biologists working under benchtop conditions than are the microelectronics-derived methods because, in soft lithography, devices do not need to be fabricated in a cleanroom. This paper describes devices fabricated in PDMS for separations, patterning of biological and nonbiological material, and components for integrated systems.

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Topics: Soft lithography (56%)

3,174 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATREVMATS.2016.98
Abstract: The family of 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (collectively referred to as MXenes) has expanded rapidly since the discovery of Ti3C2 in 2011. The materials reported so far always have surface terminations, such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine, which impart hydrophilicity to their surfaces. About 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, and the structures and properties of dozens more have been theoretically predicted. The availability of solid solutions, the control of surface terminations and a recent discovery of multi-transition-metal layered MXenes offer the potential for synthesis of many new structures. The versatile chemistry of MXenes allows the tuning of properties for applications including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, reinforcement for composites, water purification, gas- and biosensors, lubrication, and photo-, electro- and chemical catalysis. Attractive electronic, optical, plasmonic and thermoelectric properties have also been shown. In this Review, we present the synthesis, structure and properties of MXenes, as well as their energy storage and related applications, and an outlook for future research. More than twenty 2D carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides of transition metals (MXenes) have been synthesized and studied, and dozens more predicted to exist. Highly electrically conductive MXenes show promise in electrical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, electrocatalysis, plasmonics and other applications.

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Topics: MXenes (76%)

3,017 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADMA.201304138
01 Feb 2014-Advanced Materials
Abstract: Recently a new, large family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, called MXenes, was discovered. MXenes are produced by selective etching of the A element from the MAX phases, which are metallically conductive, layered solids connected by strong metallic, ionic, and covalent bonds, such as Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2, and Ta4AlC3. MXenes ­combine the metallic conductivity of transition metal carbides with the hydrophilic nature of their hydroxyl or oxygen terminated surfaces. In essence, they behave as “conductive clays”. This article reviews progress—both ­experimental and theoretical—on their synthesis, structure, properties, intercalation, delamination, and potential applications. MXenes are expected to be good candidates for a host of applications. They have already shown promising performance in electrochemical energy storage systems. A detailed outlook for future research on MXenes is also presented.

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Topics: MXenes (76%)

2,716 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.281
01 Aug 2009-Nature Chemistry
Abstract: Graphite oxide is one of the main precursors of graphene-based materials, which are highly promising for various technological applications because of their unusual electronic properties Although epoxy and hydroxyl groups are widely accepted as its main functionalities, the complete structure of graphite oxide has remained elusive By interpreting spectroscopic data in the context of the major functional groups believed to be present in graphite oxide, we now show evidence for the presence of five- and six-membered-ring lactols On the basis of this chemical composition, we devised a complete reduction process through chemical conversion by sodium borohydride and sulfuric acid treatment, followed by thermal annealing Only small amounts of impurities are present in the final product (less than 05 wt% of sulfur and nitrogen, compared with about 3 wt% with other chemical reductions) This method is particularly effective in the restoration of the π-conjugated structure, and leads to highly soluble and conductive graphene materials

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Topics: Graphite oxide (66%), Graphene (56%), Sulfuric acid (50%) ... read more

2,114 Citations