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DissertationDOI

Processus d'apprentissage, savoirs complexes et traitement de l'information : un modèle théorique à l'usage des praticiens, entre sciences cognitives, didactique et philosophie des sciences.

11 Jun 2013-

TL;DR: Cherchant et al. as mentioned in this paper propose a modele allosterique, which is an interface between the sciences of education, the sciences cognitives, and the philosophy des sciences.

AbstractCherchant a etablir un pont theorique et pratique entre les sciences de l'education, les sciences cognitives et la philosophie des sciences, la these developpe un modele didactique a l'interface entre ces disciplines : le modele allosterique de l'apprendre initie et developpe par Giordan (1988) et al. (1992), qui s'inscrit dans le paradigme des theories du changement conceptuel. Nourri par les travaux recents des psychologues cognitifs sur les processus d'apprentissage tels que les theories du recyclage neuronal (Dehaene, 2007) ou de l'inhibition cerebrale (Houde & Tzourio-Mazoyer, 2003), ainsi que sur diverses theories relatives a l'elaboration de la pensee telles que l'economie comportementale (Tversky & Kahnernan, 1982) ou le modele-cadre SRK (Rasmussen, 1990), ce modele developpe et precise le concept d’allosterie a travers la description et la formalisation des processus de deconstruction-reconstruction des conceptions, qui ont lieu lors des apprentissages complexes. De la phase de theorisation du modele, effectuee par un recours aux formalismes de la reactivite chimique en accord avec la metaphore initiale de l'allosterie, il est possible de deduire divers environnements didactiques operatoires et feconds pour le praticien de l'enseignement et de la mediation scientifiques. Ces previsions theoriques sont alors mises a l'epreuve de l'experimentation didactique a travers une recherche de terrain centree sur la notion d'experience contre-intuitive (Eastes & Pellaud, 2004) menee aupres de differents types de publics.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI

266 citations

01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the implications of individual differences in performance for each of the four explanations of the normative/descriptive gap, including performance errors, computational limitations, wrong norm being applied by the experimenter, and a different construal of the task by the subject.
Abstract: Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational limitations, (3) the wrong norm being applied by the experimenter, and (4) a different construal of the task by the subject. In the debates about the viability of these alternative explanations, attention has been focused too narrowly on the model response. In a series of experiments involving most of the classic tasks in the heuristics and biases literature, we have examined the implications of individual differences in performance for each of the four explanations of the normative/descriptive gap. Performance errors are a minor factor in the gap; computational limitations underlie non-normative responding on several tasks, particularly those that involve some type of cognitive decontextualization. Unexpected patterns of covariance can suggest when the wrong norm is being applied to a task or when an alternative construal of the task should be considered appropriate.

231 citations

Journal Article

149 citations

01 Dec 1997
TL;DR: In this article, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to examine the neural substrates of topographical memory retrieval in licensed London taxi drivers of many years experience while they recalled complex routes around the city.
Abstract: Functional imaging to date has examined the neural basis of knowledge of spatial layouts of large-scale environments typically in the context of episodic memory with specific spatiotemporal references. Much human behavior, however, takes place in very familiar environments in which knowledge of spatial layouts has entered the domain of general facts often referred to as semantic memory. In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to examine the neural substrates of topographical memory retrieval in licensed London taxi drivers of many years experience while they recalled complex routes around the city. Compared with baseline and other nontopographical memory tasks, this resulted in activation of a network of brain regions, including the right hippocampus. Recall of famous landmarks for which subjects had no knowledge of their location within a spatial framework activated similar regions, except for the right hippocampus. This suggests that the hippocampus is involved in the processing of spatial layouts established over long time courses. The involvement of similar brain areas in routes and landmarks memory indicates that the topographical memory system may be primed to respond to any relevant topographical stimulation; however, the right hippocampus is recruited specifically for navigation in large-scale spatial environments. In contrast, nontopographical semantic memory retrieval involved the left inferior frontal gyrus, with no change in activity in medial temporal regions.

44 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: The authors described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: representativeness, availability of instances or scenarios, and adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available.
Abstract: This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgements and decisions in situations of uncertainty.

30,770 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ten-year edition of the 10th anniversary edition as mentioned in this paper is devoted to the theory of multiple intelligences and its application in the socialization of human intelligence through Symbols Implications And Applications.
Abstract: * Introduction to the Tenth Anniversary Edition Background * The Idea of Multiple Intelligences * Intelligence: Earlier Views * Biological Foundations of Intelligence * What Is an Intelligence? The Theory * Linguistic Intelligence * Musical Intelligence * Logical-Mathematical Intelligence * Spatial Intelligence * Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence * The Personal Intelligences * A Critique of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences * The Socialization of Human Intelligences through Symbols Implications And Applications * The Education of Intelligences * The Application of Intelligences

11,509 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1986-Mln

8,594 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...  Les  théories  éducatives  ont  d’abord  pu  bénéficier  des  apports  majeurs  de  la  psychologie  génétique  (Piaget,  1966,  1969 ;  Ausubel,  1968 ;  Bruner,  1986)  puis,  conjuguées  aux  apports  de …...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: "It is certain that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception, and whether the body be alterant or alterec, evermore a perception precedeth operation; for else all bodies would be like one to another."
Abstract: "It is certain that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception; for when one body is applied to another, there is a kind of election to embrace that which is agreeable, and +'0 exclude or expel that which is ingrate; and whether the body be alterant or alterec, evermore a perception precedeth operation; for else all bodies would be like one to another." Francis Bacon (abou.1620)

7,887 citations