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Journal ArticleDOI

Reviving the lithium metal anode for high-energy batteries

01 Mar 2017-Nature Nanotechnology (Nature Research)-Vol. 12, Iss: 3, pp 194-206

TL;DR: The current understanding on Li anodes is summarized, the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques are highlighted, and the opportunities and possible directions for future development ofLi anodes in applications are discussed.
Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have had a profound impact on our daily life, but inherent limitations make it difficult for Li-ion chemistries to meet the growing demands for portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. Therefore, chemistries beyond Li-ion are currently being investigated and need to be made viable for commercial applications. The use of metallic Li is one of the most favoured choices for next-generation Li batteries, especially Li-S and Li-air systems. After falling into oblivion for several decades because of safety concerns, metallic Li is now ready for a revival, thanks to the development of investigative tools and nanotechnology-based solutions. In this Review, we first summarize the current understanding on Li anodes, then highlight the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques, and finally discuss the opportunities and possible directions for future development of Li anodes in applications.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jul 2017-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth, summarizing the theoretical and experimental achievements and endeavors to realize the practical applications of lithium metal batteries.
Abstract: The lithium metal battery is strongly considered to be one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density energy storage devices in our modern and technology-based society. However, uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth induces poor cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns, dragging lithium metal batteries out of practical applications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth. First, the working principles and technical challenges of a lithium metal anode are underscored. Specific attention is paid to the mechanistic understandings and quantitative models for solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, lithium dendrite nucleation, and growth. On the basis of previous theoretical understanding and analysis, recently proposed strategies to suppress dendrite growth of lithium metal anode and some other metal anodes are reviewed. A section dedicated to the potential of full-cell lithium metal batteries for practical applicatio...

2,426 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Martin Winter1, Brian Barnett2, Kang Xu3Institutions (3)
30 Nov 2018-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: This Review covers a sequence of key discoveries and technical achievements that eventually led to the birth of the lithium-ion battery and sheds light on the history with the advantage of contemporary hindsight to aid in the ongoing quest for better batteries of the future.
Abstract: This Review covers a sequence of key discoveries and technical achievements that eventually led to the birth of the lithium-ion battery. In doing so, it not only sheds light on the history with the advantage of contemporary hindsight but also provides insight and inspiration to aid in the ongoing quest for better batteries of the future. A detailed retrospective on ingenious designs, accidental discoveries, intentional breakthroughs, and deceiving misconceptions is given: from the discovery of the element lithium to its electrochemical synthesis; from intercalation host material development to the concept of dual-intercalation electrodes; and from the misunderstanding of intercalation behavior into graphite to the comprehension of interphases. The onerous demands of bringing all critical components (anode, cathode, electrolyte, solid-electrolyte interphases), each of which possess unique chemistries, into a sophisticated electrochemical device reveal that the challenge of interfacing these originally inco...

779 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jinbo Pang1, Rafael G. Mendes2, Rafael G. Mendes1, Alicja Bachmatiuk2  +12 moreInstitutions (6)
TL;DR: The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen.
Abstract: Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), a family of two-dimensional (2D) inorganic compounds, are materials composed of a few atomic layers of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. Ti3C2, the first 2D layered MXene, was isolated in 2011. This material, which is a layered bulk material analogous to graphite, was derived from its 3D phase, Ti3AlC2 MAX. Since then, material scientists have either determined or predicted the stable phases of >200 different MXenes based on combinations of various transition metals such as Ti, Mo, V, Cr, and their alloys with C and N. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have shown their exciting potential for energy conversion and electrochemical storage. To this end, we comprehensively summarize the current advances in MXene research. We begin by reviewing the structure types and morphologies and their fabrication routes. The review then discusses the mechanical, electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties of MXenes. The focus then turns to their exciting potential in energy storage and conversion. Energy storage applications include electrodes in rechargeable lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and supercapacitors. In terms of energy conversion, photocatalytic fuel production, such as hydrogen evolution from water splitting, and carbon dioxide reduction are presented. The potential of MXenes for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dye waste, is also addressed, along with their promise as catalysts for ammonium synthesis from nitrogen. Finally, their application potential is summarized.

715 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Aiping Wang1, Sanket Kadam2, Hong Li3, Siqi Shi1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
26 Mar 2018-
Abstract: A passivation layer called the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed on electrode surfaces from decomposition products of electrolytes. The SEI allows Li+ transport and blocks electrons in order to prevent further electrolyte decomposition and ensure continued electrochemical reactions. The formation and growth mechanism of the nanometer thick SEI films are yet to be completely understood owing to their complex structure and lack of reliable in situ experimental techniques. Significant advances in computational methods have made it possible to predictively model the fundamentals of SEI. This review aims to give an overview of state-of-the-art modeling progress in the investigation of SEI films on the anodes, ranging from electronic structure calculations to mesoscale modeling, covering the thermodynamics and kinetics of electrolyte reduction reactions, SEI formation, modification through electrolyte design, correlation of SEI properties with battery performance, and the artificial SEI design. Multi-scale simulations have been summarized and compared with each other as well as with experiments. Computational details of the fundamental properties of SEI, such as electron tunneling, Li-ion transport, chemical/mechanical stability of the bulk SEI and electrode/(SEI/) electrolyte interfaces have been discussed. This review shows the potential of computational approaches in the deconvolution of SEI properties and design of artificial SEI. We believe that computational modeling can be integrated with experiments to complement each other and lead to a better understanding of the complex SEI for the development of a highly efficient battery in the future.

513 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Zhonghui Gao1, Hua-Bin Sun1, Lin Fu1, Fangliang Ye1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
22 Feb 2018-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: A survey of emerging SSEs is presented, a perspective on the current challenges and opportunities is provided, and suggestions for future research directions for S SEs and ASSLBs are suggested.
Abstract: All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) have the potential to revolutionize battery systems for electric vehicles due to their benefits in safety, energy density, packaging, and operable temperature range. As the key component in ASSLBs, inorganic lithium-ion-based solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted great interest, and advances in SSEs are vital to deliver the promise of ASSLBs. Herein, a survey of emerging SSEs is presented, and ion-transport mechanisms are briefly discussed. Techniques for increasing the ionic conductivity of SSEs, including substitution and mechanical strain treatment, are highlighted. Recent advances in various classes of SSEs enabled by different preparation methods are described. Then, the issues of chemical stabilities, electrochemical compatibility, and the interfaces between electrodes and SSEs are focused on. A variety of research addressing these issues is outlined accordingly. Given their importance for next-generation battery systems and transportation style, a perspective on the current challenges and opportunities is provided, and suggestions for future research directions for SSEs and ASSLBs are suggested.

507 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Jean-Marie Tarascon1, Michel Armand2Institutions (2)
15 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: A brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries is presented, ongoing research strategies are highlighted, and the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems are discussed.
Abstract: Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems.

15,475 citations


"Reviving the lithium metal anode fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Several criteria need to be met for solid electrolytes to be effective: (1) sufficiently high modulus to stop Li dendrite penetration; (2) sufficient Li-ion conductivity at ambient temperature; (3) wide electrochemical stability window without cathodic or anodic decomposition at either electrode; (4) low interfacial resistance and good adhesion with both electrodes....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2011-Science
TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

8,906 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2011-Nature Materials
TL;DR: The energy that can be stored in Li-air and Li-S cells is compared with Li-ion; the operation of the cells is discussed, as are the significant hurdles that will have to be overcome if such batteries are to succeed.
Abstract: Li-ion batteries have transformed portable electronics and will play a key role in the electrification of transport. However, the highest energy storage possible for Li-ion batteries is insufficient for the long-term needs of society, for example, extended-range electric vehicles. To go beyond the horizon of Li-ion batteries is a formidable challenge; there are few options. Here we consider two: Li-air (O(2)) and Li-S. The energy that can be stored in Li-air (based on aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes) and Li-S cells is compared with Li-ion; the operation of the cells is discussed, as are the significant hurdles that will have to be overcome if such batteries are to succeed. Fundamental scientific advances in understanding the reactions occurring in the cells as well as new materials are key to overcoming these obstacles. The potential benefits of Li-air and Li-S justify the continued research effort that will be needed.

6,805 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Candace K. Chan1, Hailin Peng1, Gao Liu2, Kevin McIlwrath3  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The theoretical charge capacity for silicon nanowire battery electrodes is achieved and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
Abstract: There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

5,578 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John B. Goodenough1, Kyusung Park1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: New strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively.
Abstract: Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid–solution range. The solid–solution range, which is...

5,431 citations


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