Other affiliations: Health Science University, University of Genoa, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University ...read more
Bio: Paolo Provero is an academic researcher from University of Turin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Gauge theory & Gene. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 212 publications receiving 10886 citations. Previous affiliations of Paolo Provero include Health Science University & University of Genoa.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This study identified and validated endogenous protein-coding transcripts that regulate PTEN, antagonize PI3K/AKT signaling, and possess growth- and tumor-suppressive properties and presents a road map for the prediction and validation of ceRNA activity and networks and thus imparts a trans-regulatory function to protein- coding mRNAs.
Abstract: SUMMARY Here, we demonstrate that protein-coding RNA transcripts can crosstalk by competing for common microRNAs, with microRNA response elements as the foundation of this interaction We have termed such RNA transcripts as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) We tested this hypothesis in the context of PTEN, a key tumor suppressor whose abundance determines critical outcomes in tumorigenesis By a combined computational and experimental approach, we identified and validated endogenous protein-coding transcripts that regulate PTEN, antagonize PI3K/AKT signaling, and possess growth- and tumor-suppressive properties Notably, we also show that these genes display concordant expression patterns with PTEN and copy number loss in cancers Our study presents a road map for the prediction and validation of ceRNA activity and networks and thus imparts a trans-regulatory function to protein-coding mRNAs
TL;DR: In this article, a possible definition of path integrals for string theory is studied, based on a discretized version of Polyakov's generating functional, and the finite resolution of string theory, as opposed to the infinite resolution in particle theory, clearly emerges from a renormalization group type analysis.
Abstract: A possible definition of path integrals for string theory is studied, based on a discretized version of Polyakov's generating functional. The finite resolution of string theory, as opposed to the infinite resolution in particle theory, clearly emerges from a renormalization group type analysis. We derive the existence of a minimum physical length (∼10−33cm) and generalized form of the uncertainty principle, and discuss some of their consequences.
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute1, University of Oxford2, Genentech3, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University4, University of Turin5, European Bioinformatics Institute6, University of Paris-Sud7, King Abdulaziz University8, Western General Hospital9, Institut national de la recherche agronomique10, University of Leicester11, International Potato Center12, Joint Genome Institute13, Queen Mary University of London14, French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation15, University of Trento16, University of Chile17, Pfizer18, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies19, Pompeu Fabra University20, Seoul National University21, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research22, University of California, Los Angeles23, Iowa State University24, Peking University25, University of Cambridge26, Karolinska Institutet27, University of Rennes28, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory29
TL;DR: The latest version of the BioMart Community Portal comes with many new databases that have been created by the ever-growing community and comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools.
Abstract: The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations.
TL;DR: This study genetically identifies multiple putative microRNA decoys for PTEN, validates Z EB2 mRNA as a bona fide PTEN ceRNA, and demonstrates that abrogated ZEB2 expression cooperates with BRAF V600E to promote melanomagenesis.
Abstract: We recently proposed that competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) sequester microRNAs to regulate mRNA transcripts containing common microRNA recognition elements (MREs). However, the functional role of ceRNAs in cancer remains unknown. Loss of PTEN, a tumor suppressor regulated by ceRNA activity, frequently occurs in melanoma. Here, we report the discovery of significant enrichment of putative PTEN ceRNAs among genes whose loss accelerates tumorigenesis following Sleeping Beauty insertional mutagenesis in a mouse model of melanoma. We validated several putative PTEN ceRNAs and further characterized one, the ZEB2 transcript. We show that ZEB2 modulates PTEN protein levels in a microRNA-dependent, protein coding-independent manner. Attenuation of ZEB2 expression activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, enhances cell transformation, and commonly occurs in human melanomas and other cancers expressing low PTEN levels. Our study genetically identifies multiple putative microRNA decoys for PTEN, validates ZEB2 mRNA as a bona fide PTEN ceRNA, and demonstrates that abrogated ZEB2 expression cooperates with BRAF(V600E) to promote melanomagenesis.
TL;DR: It is shown that targeted pharmacologic disruption of EZH2 by the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), or its specific downregulation by short hairpin RNA (shRNA), strongly impairs GBM cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal in vitro and tumor-initiating capacity in vivo.
Abstract: Overexpression of the polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) occurs in diverse malignancies, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Based on its ability to modulate transcription of key genes implicated in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and cell differentiation, EZH2 is believed to play a crucial role in tissue-specific stem cell maintenance and tumor development. Here, we show that targeted pharmacologic disruption of EZH2 by the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), or its specific downregulation by short hairpin RNA (shRNA), strongly impairs GBM cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal in vitro and tumor-initiating capacity in vivo. Using genome-wide expression analysis of DZNep-treated GBM CSCs, we found the expression of c-myc, recently reported to be essential for GBM CSCs, to be strongly repressed upon EZH2 depletion. Specific shRNA-mediated downregulation of EZH2 in combination with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that c-myc is a direct target of EZH2 in GBM CSCs. Taken together, our observations provide evidence that direct transcriptional regulation of c-myc by EZH2 may constitute a novel mechanism underlying GBM CSC maintenance and suggest that EZH2 may be a valuable new therapeutic target for GBM management.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
Abstract: The relationship between the two estimates of genetic variation at the DNA level, namely the number of segregating sites and the average number of nucleotide differences estimated from pairwise comparison, is investigated. It is found that the correlation between these two estimates is large when the sample size is small, and decreases slowly as the sample size increases. Using the relationship obtained, a statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis is developed. This method needs only the data of DNA polymorphism, namely the genetic variation within population at the DNA level. A simple method of computer simulation, that was used in order to obtain the distribution of a new statistic developed, is also presented. Applying this statistical method to the five regions of DNA sequences in Drosophila melanogaster, it is found that large insertion/deletion (greater than 100 bp) is deleterious. It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
TL;DR: It is found that a human circRNA, antisense to the cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1 transcript (CDR1as), is densely bound by microRNA (miRNA) effector complexes and harbours 63 conserved binding sites for the ancient miRNA miR-7.
Abstract: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) in animals are an enigmatic class of RNA with unknown function. To explore circRNAs systematically, we sequenced and computationally analysed human, mouse and nematode RNA. We detected thousands of well-expressed, stable circRNAs, often showing tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. Sequence analysis indicated important regulatory functions for circRNAs. We found that a human circRNA, antisense to the cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1 transcript (CDR1as), is densely bound by microRNA (miRNA) effector complexes and harbours 63 conserved binding sites for the ancient miRNA miR-7. Further analyses indicated that CDR1as functions to bind miR-7 in neuronal tissues. Human CDR1as expression in zebrafish impaired midbrain development, similar to knocking down miR-7, suggesting that CDR1as is a miRNA antagonist with a miRNA-binding capacity ten times higher than any other known transcript. Together, our data provide evidence that circRNAs form a large class of post-transcriptional regulators. Numerous circRNAs form by head-to-tail splicing of exons, suggesting previously unrecognized regulatory potential of coding sequences.
TL;DR: This study serves as the first functional analysis of a naturally expressed circular RNA, ciRS-7, which contains more than 70 selectively conserved miRNA target sites, and is highly and widely associated with Argonaute proteins in a miR-7-dependent manner.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more than 70 selectively conserved miRNA target sites, and it is highly and widely associated with Argonaute (AGO) proteins in a miR-7-dependent manner. Although the circRNA is completely resistant to miRNA-mediated target destabilization, it strongly suppresses miR-7 activity, resulting in increased levels of miR-7 targets. In the mouse brain, we observe overlapping co-expression of ciRS-7 and miR-7, particularly in neocortical and hippocampal neurons, suggesting a high degree of endogenous interaction. We further show that the testis-specific circRNA, sex-determining region Y (Sry), serves as a miR-138 sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA.
TL;DR: This study developed starBase v2.0, which has been updated to provide the most comprehensive CLIP-Seq experimentally supported miRNA-mRNA and mi RNA-lncRNA interaction networks to date, and developed miRFunction and ceRNAFunction web servers to predict the function of miRNAs and other ncRNAs from themiRNA-mediated regulatory networks.
Abstract: Although microRNAs (miRNAs), other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) (e.g. lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) and competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been implicated in cell-fate determination and in various human diseases, surprisingly little is known about the regulatory interaction networks among the multiple classes of RNAs. In this study, we developed starBase v2.0 (http://starbase.sysu.edu.cn/) to systematically identify the RNA-RNA and protein-RNA interaction networks from 108 CLIP-Seq (PAR-CLIP, HITS-CLIP, iCLIP, CLASH) data sets generated by 37 independent studies. By analyzing millions of RNA-binding protein binding sites, we identified ∼9000 miRNA-circRNA, 16 000 miRNA-pseudogene and 285,000 protein-RNA regulatory relationships. Moreover, starBase v2.0 has been updated to provide the most comprehensive CLIP-Seq experimentally supported miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-lncRNA interaction networks to date. We identified ∼10,000 ceRNA pairs from CLIP-supported miRNA target sites. By combining 13 functional genomic annotations, we developed miRFunction and ceRNAFunction web servers to predict the function of miRNAs and other ncRNAs from the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks. Finally, we developed interactive web implementations to provide visualization, analysis and downloading of the aforementioned large-scale data sets. This study will greatly expand our understanding of ncRNA functions and their coordinated regulatory networks.