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Institution

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

EducationCambridge, Massachusetts, United States
About: Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a(n) education organization based out in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Laser. The organization has 116795 authors who have published 268000 publication(s) receiving 18272025 citation(s). The organization is also known as: MIT & M.I.T..
Topics: Population, Laser, Galaxy, Gene, Scattering
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using distributed antennas, this work develops and analyzes low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks and develops performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading.
Abstract: We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decode-and-forward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., second-order diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks-wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays-the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols.

12,519 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Oct 1999-Science
TL;DR: A generic approach to cancer classification based on gene expression monitoring by DNA microarrays is described and applied to human acute leukemias as a test case and suggests a general strategy for discovering and predicting cancer classes for other types of cancer, independent of previous biological knowledge.
Abstract: Although cancer classification has improved over the past 30 years, there has been no general approach for identifying new cancer classes (class discovery) or for assigning tumors to known classes (class prediction). Here, a generic approach to cancer classification based on gene expression monitoring by DNA microarrays is described and applied to human acute leukemias as a test case. A class discovery procedure automatically discovered the distinction between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without previous knowledge of these classes. An automatically derived class predictor was able to determine the class of new leukemia cases. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cancer classification based solely on gene expression monitoring and suggest a general strategy for discovering and predicting cancer classes for other types of cancer, independent of previous biological knowledge.

12,173 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Jan 2000-
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,951 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many corporate assets, particularly growth opportunities, can be viewed as call options. The value of such ‘real options’ depends on discretionary future investment by the firm. Issuing risky debt reduces the present market value of a firm holding real options by inducing a suboptimal investment strategy or by forcing the firm and its creditors to bear the costs of avoiding the suboptimal strategy. The paper predicts that corporate borrowing is inversely related to the proportion of market value accounted for by real options. It also rationalizes other aspects of corporate borrowing behavior, for example the practice of matching maturities of assets and debt liabilities.

11,862 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reviews the historical development of Transition metal dichalcogenides, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Abstract: Single-layer metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional semiconductors that present strong potential for electronic and sensing applications complementary to that of graphene.

11,301 citations


Authors

Showing all 116795 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Eric S. Lander301826525976
Robert Langer2812324326306
George M. Whitesides2401739269833
Trevor W. Robbins2311137164437
George Davey Smith2242540248373
Yi Cui2201015199725
Robert J. Lefkowitz214860147995
David J. Hunter2131836207050
Daniel Levy212933194778
Rudolf Jaenisch206606178436
Mark J. Daly204763304452
David Miller2032573204840
David Baltimore203876162955
Rakesh K. Jain2001467177727
Ronald M. Evans199708166722
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022141
202110,566
202011,920
201911,205
201810,883
201710,505

Top Attributes

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Social Science Research Network

5.3K papers, 337.8K citations

Physical Review Letters

3.8K papers, 425.2K citations

The Astrophysical Journal

2.6K papers, 226.6K citations

Nature

2.4K papers, 814.9K citations