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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PPAT.1009345

A Salmonella Typhi RNA thermosensor regulates virulence factors and innate immune evasion in response to host temperature.

02 Mar 2021-PLOS Pathogens (Public Library of Science (PLoS))-Vol. 17, Iss: 3
Abstract: Sensing and responding to environmental signals is critical for bacterial pathogens to successfully infect and persist within hosts. Many bacterial pathogens sense temperature as an indication they have entered a new host and must alter their virulence factor expression to evade immune detection. Using secondary structure prediction, we identified an RNA thermosensor (RNAT) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of tviA encoded by the typhoid fever-causing bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). Importantly, tviA is a transcriptional regulator of the critical virulence factors Vi capsule, flagellin, and type III secretion system-1 expression. By introducing point mutations to alter the mRNA secondary structure, we demonstrate that the 5' UTR of tviA contains a functional RNAT using in vitro expression, structure probing, and ribosome binding methods. Mutational inhibition of the RNAT in S. Typhi causes aberrant virulence factor expression, leading to enhanced innate immune responses during infection. In conclusion, we show that S. Typhi regulates virulence factor expression through an RNAT in the 5' UTR of tviA. Our findings demonstrate that limiting inflammation through RNAT-dependent regulation in response to host body temperature is important for S. Typhi's "stealthy" pathogenesis.

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Topics: Salmonella typhi (56%), Virulence (55%), Virulence factor (52%) ... show more

7 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10040410
01 Apr 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: Enteric fever is a life-threatening systemic febrile disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi). Unfortunately, the burden of the disease remains high primarily due to the global spread of various drug-resistant Salmonella strains despite continuous advancement in the field. An accurate diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease. However, enteric fever diagnosis based on clinical presentations is challenging due to overlapping symptoms with other febrile illnesses that are also prevalent in endemic areas. Current laboratory tests display suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, and no diagnostic methods are available for identifying asymptomatic carriers. Several research programs have employed systemic approaches to identify more specific biomarkers for early detection and asymptomatic carrier detection. This review discusses the pros and cons of currently available diagnostic tests for enteric fever, the advancement of research toward improved diagnostic tests, and the challenges of discovering new ideal biomarkers and tests.

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Topics: Salmonella typhi (54%), Asymptomatic carrier (50%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMICB.2021.719977
Brice Felden1, Yoann Augagneur1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Bacterial gene expression is under the control of a large set of molecules acting at multiple levels. In addition to the transcription factors (TFs) already known to be involved in global regulation of gene expression, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as major players in gene regulatory networks, where they allow environmental adaptation and fitness. Developments in high-throughput screening have enabled their detection in the entire bacterial kingdom. These sRNAs influence a plethora of biological processes, including but not limited to outer membrane synthesis, metabolism, TF regulation, transcription termination, virulence, and antibiotic resistance and persistence. Almost always noncoding, they regulate target genes at the post-transcriptional level, usually through base-pair interactions with mRNAs, alone or with the help of dedicated chaperones. There is growing evidence that sRNA-mediated mechanisms of actions are far more diverse than initially thought, and that they go beyond the so-called cis- and trans-encoded classifications. These molecules can be derived and processed from 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), coding or non-coding sequences, and even from 3' UTRs. They usually act within the bacterial cytoplasm, but recent studies showed sRNAs in extracellular vesicles, where they influence host cell interactions. In this review, we highlight the various functions of sRNAs in bacterial pathogens, and focus on the increasing examples of widely diverse regulatory mechanisms that might compel us to reconsider what constitute the sRNA.

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Topics: Regulation of gene expression (53%), Gene (51%), Small RNA (51%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PPAT.1009650
12 Nov 2021-PLOS Pathogens
Abstract: Many bacterial pathogens use a type III secretion system (T3SS) as molecular syringe to inject effector proteins into the host cell. In the foodborne pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, delivery of the secreted effector protein cocktail through the T3SS depends on YopN, a molecular gatekeeper that controls access to the secretion channel from the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we show that several checkpoints adjust yopN expression to virulence conditions. A dominant cue is the host body temperature. A temperature of 37°C is known to induce the RNA thermometer (RNAT)-dependent synthesis of LcrF, a transcription factor that activates expression of the entire T3SS regulon. Here, we uncovered a second layer of temperature control. We show that another RNAT silences translation of the yopN mRNA at low environmental temperatures. The long and short 5’-untranslated region of both cellular yopN isoforms fold into a similar secondary structure that blocks ribosome binding. The hairpin structure with an internal loop melts at 37°C and thereby permits formation of the translation initiation complex as shown by mutational analysis, in vitro structure probing and toeprinting methods. Importantly, we demonstrate the physiological relevance of the RNAT in the faithful control of type III secretion by using a point-mutated thermostable RNAT variant with a trapped SD sequence. Abrogated YopN production in this strain led to unrestricted effector protein secretion into the medium, bacterial growth arrest and delayed translocation into eukaryotic host cells. Cumulatively, our results show that substrate delivery by the Yersinia T3SS is under hierarchical surveillance of two RNATs.

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Topics: Effector (56%), Translation initiation complex (54%), RNA thermometer (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MSYSTEMS.00707-21
28 Sep 2021-
Abstract: The intestinal microbiome influences host health, and its responsiveness to diet and disease is increasingly well studied. However, our understanding of the factors driving microbiome variation remain limited. Temperature is a core factor that controls microbial growth, but its impact on the microbiome remains to be fully explored. Although commonly assumed to be a constant 37°C, normal body temperatures vary across the animal kingdom, while individual body temperature is affected by multiple factors, including circadian rhythm, age, environmental temperature stress, and immune activation. Changes in body temperature via hypo- and hyperthermia have been shown to influence the gut microbiota in a variety of animals, with consistent effects on community diversity and stability. It is known that temperature directly modulates the growth and virulence of gastrointestinal pathogens; however, the effect of temperature on gut commensals is not well studied. Further, body temperature can influence other host factors, such as appetite and immunity, with indirect effects on the microbiome. In this minireview, we discuss the evidence linking body temperature and the intestinal microbiome and their implications for microbiome function during hypothermia, heat stress, and fever.

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Topics: Microbiome (66%), Human microbiome (59%), Gut flora (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMICB.2021.687260
Abstract: The outer membrane protein OmpA is a virulence factor in many mammalian pathogens. In previous global RNA structure probing studies, we found evidence for a temperature-modulated RNA structure in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ompA transcript suggesting that opening of the structure at host-body temperature might relieve translational repression. Here, we support this hypothesis by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, translational reporter gene fusions, enzymatic RNA structure probing, and toeprinting assays. While ompA transcript levels decreased at 37°C compared to 25°C, translation of the transcript increased with increasing temperature. Biochemical experiments show that this is due to melting of the RNA structure, which permits ribosome binding to the 5'-UTR. A point mutation that locks the RNA structure in a closed conformation prevents translation by impairing ribosome access. Our findings add another common virulence factor to the growing list of pathogen-associated genes that are under RNA thermometer control.

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Topics: RNA thermometer (64%), Ribosome (58%), Gene expression (58%) ... show more


64 results found

Open accessBook
01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: Molecular Cloning has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential. Molecular Cloning, Fourth Edition, by the celebrated founding author Joe Sambrook and new co-author, the distinguished HHMI investigator Michael Green, preserves the highly praised detail and clarity of previous editions and includes specific chapters and protocols commissioned for the book from expert practitioners at Yale, U Mass, Rockefeller University, Texas Tech, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University, and other leading institutions. The theoretical and historical underpinnings of techniques are prominent features of the presentation throughout, information that does much to help trouble-shoot experimental problems. For the fourth edition of this classic work, the content has been entirely recast to include nucleic-acid based methods selected as the most widely used and valuable in molecular and cellular biology laboratories. Core chapters from the third edition have been revised to feature current strategies and approaches to the preparation and cloning of nucleic acids, gene transfer, and expression analysis. They are augmented by 12 new chapters which show how DNA, RNA, and proteins should be prepared, evaluated, and manipulated, and how data generation and analysis can be handled. The new content includes methods for studying interactions between cellular components, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing technologies, RNA interference, and epigenetic analysis using DNA methylation techniques and chromatin immunoprecipitation. To make sense of the wealth of data produced by these techniques, a bioinformatics chapter describes the use of analytical tools for comparing sequences of genes and proteins and identifying common expression patterns among sets of genes. Building on thirty years of trust, reliability, and authority, the fourth edition of Mol

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Topics: Molecular cloning (57%)

23,709 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKG595
Michael Zuker1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The abbreviated name,‘mfold web server’,describes a number of closely related software applications available on the World Wide Web (WWW) for the prediction of the secondary structure of single stranded nucleic acids. The objective of this web server is to provide easy access to RNA and DNA folding and hybridization software to the scientific community at large. By making use of universally available web GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces),the server circumvents the problem of portability of this software. Detailed output,in the form of structure plots with or without reliability information,single strand frequency plots and ‘energy dot plots’, are available for the folding of single sequences. A variety of ‘bulk’ servers give less information,but in a shorter time and for up to hundreds of sequences at once. The portal for the mfold web server is mfold. This URL will be referred to as ‘MFOLDROOT’.

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Topics: Web server (61%), Server (53%), Software portability (51%)

11,636 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35074106
26 Apr 2001-Nature
Abstract: The innate immune system recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, but not on the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize PAMPs and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. Flagellin, a principal component of bacterial flagella, is a virulence factor that is recognized by the innate immune system in organisms as diverse as flies, plants and mammals. Here we report that mammalian TLR5 recognizes bacterial flagellin from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that activation of the receptor mobilizes the nuclear factor NF-kappaB and stimulates tumour necrosis factor-alpha production. TLR5-stimulating activity was purified from Listeria monocytogenes culture supernatants and identified as flagellin by tandem mass spectrometry. Expression of L. monocytogenes flagellin in non-flagellated Escherichia coli conferred on the bacterium the ability to activate TLR5, whereas deletion of the flagellin genes from Salmonella typhimurium abrogated TLR5-stimulating activity. All known TLRs signal through the adaptor protein MyD88. Mice challenged with bacterial flagellin rapidly produced systemic interleukin-6, whereas MyD88-null mice did not respond to flagellin. Our data suggest that TLR5, a member of the evolutionarily conserved Toll-like receptor family, has evolved to permit mammals specifically to detect flagellated bacterial pathogens.

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Topics: Flagellin (75%), TLR5 (71%), Toll-like receptor (60%) ... show more

3,393 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35101614
25 Oct 2001-Nature
Abstract: Salmonella enterica subspecies I, serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis, and is used as a mouse model of human typhoid fever. The incidence of non-typhoid salmonellosis is increasing worldwide, causing millions of infections and many deaths in the human population each year. Here we sequenced the 4,857-kilobase (kb) chromosome and 94-kb virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium strain LT2. The distribution of close homologues of S. typhimurium LT2 genes in eight related enterobacteria was determined using previously completed genomes of three related bacteria, sample sequencing of both S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and hybridization of three unsequenced genomes to a microarray of S. typhimurium LT2 genes. Lateral transfer of genes is frequent, with 11% of the S. typhimurium LT2 genes missing from S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi), and 29% missing from Escherichia coli K12. The 352 gene homologues of S. typhimurium LT2 confined to subspecies I of S. enterica-containing most mammalian and bird pathogens-are useful for studies of epidemiology, host specificity and pathogenesis. Most of these homologues were previously unknown, and 50 may be exported to the periplasm or outer membrane, rendering them accessible as therapeutic or vaccine targets.

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Topics: Salmonella enterica (56%), Salmonella bongori (54%), Population (51%)

1,777 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4049/JIMMUNOL.167.4.1882
Andrew T. Gewirtz1, Tony A. Navas2, Sean Lyons1, Paul J. Godowski2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Flagellin, the structural component of bacterial flagella, is secreted by pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Flagellin activates proinflammatory gene expression in intestinal epithelia. However, only flagellin that contacts basolateral epithelial surfaces is proinflammatory; apical flagellin has no effect. Pathogenic Salmonella, but not commensal Escherichia coli, translocate flagellin across epithelia, thus activating epithelial proinflammatory gene expression. Investigating how epithelia detect flagellin revealed that cell surface expression of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) conferred NF-kappaB gene expression in response to flagellin. The response depended on both extracellular leucine-rich repeats and intracellular Toll/IL-1R homology region of TLR5 as well as the adaptor protein MyD88. Furthermore, immunolocalization and cell surface-selective biotinylation revealed that TLR5 is expressed exclusively on the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelia, thus providing a molecular basis for the polarity of this innate immune response. Thus, detection of flagellin by basolateral TLR5 mediates epithelial-driven inflammatory responses to Salmonella.

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Topics: Flagellin (71%), TLR5 (70%), Proinflammatory cytokine (52%)

1,309 Citations

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