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Journal ArticleDOI

Atomic force microscope

03 Mar 1986-Physical Review Letters (American Physical Society)-Vol. 56, Iss: 9, pp 930-933

Abstract: The scanning tunneling microscope is proposed as a method to measure forces as small as 10-18 N. As one application for this concept, we introduce a new type of microscope capable of investigating surfaces of insulators on an atomic scale. The atomic force microscope is a combination of the principles of the scanning tunneling microscope and the stylus profilometer. It incorporates a probe that does not damage the surface. Our preliminary results in air demonstrate a lateral resolution of 30 A and a vertical resolution less than 1 A.
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Abstract: Images and force measurements taken by an atomic‐force microscope (AFM) depend greatly on the properties of the spring and tip used to probe the sample’s surface. In this article, we describe a simple, nondestructive procedure for measuring the force constant, resonant frequency, and quality factor of an AFM cantilever spring and the effective radius of curvature of an AFM tip. Our procedure uses the AFM itself and does not require additional equipment.

3,720 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The atomic force microscope (AFM) is not only a tool to image the topography of solid surfaces at high resolution. It can also be used to measure force-versus-distance curves. Such curves, briefly called force curves, provide valuable information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness, Hamaker constant, adhesion and surface charge densities. For this reason the measurement of force curves has become essential in different fields of research such as surface science, materials engineering, and biology. Another application is the analysis of surface forces per se. Some of the most fundamental questions in colloid and surface science can be addressed directly with the AFM: What are the interactions between particles in a liquid? How can a dispersion be stabilized? How do surfaces in general and particles in particular adhere to each other? Particles and surfaces interactions have major implications for friction and lubrication. Force measurements on single molecules involving the rupture of single chemical bonds and the stretching of polymer chains have almost become routine. The structure and properties of confined liquids can be addressed since force measurements provide information on the energy of a confined liquid film. After the review of Cappella [B. Cappella, G. Dietler, Surf. Sci. Rep. 34 (1999) 1–104] 6 years of intense development have occurred. In 1999, the AFM was used only by experts to do force measurements. Now, force curves are used by many AFM researchers to characterize materials and single molecules. The technique and our understanding of surface forces has reached a new level of maturity. In this review we describe the technique of AFM force measurements. Important experimental issues such as the determination of the spring constant and of the tip radius are discussed. Current state of the art in analyzing force curves obtained under different conditions is presented. Possibilities, perspectives but also open questions and limitations are discussed.

3,024 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 May 1997-Science
TL;DR: Single-molecule atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the mechanical properties of titin, the giant sarcomeric protein of striated muscle, and refolding of immunoglobulin domains was observed.
Abstract: Single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the mechanical properties of titin, the giant sarcomeric protein of striated muscle. Individual titin molecules were repeatedly stretched, and the applied force was recorded as a function of the elongation. At large extensions, the restoring force exhibited a sawtoothlike pattern, with a periodicity that varied between 25 and 28 nanometers. Measurements of recombinant titin immunoglobulin segments of two different lengths exhibited the same pattern and allowed attribution of the discontinuities to the unfolding of individual immunoglobulin domains. The forces required to unfold individual domains ranged from 150 to 300 piconewtons and depended on the pulling speed. Upon relaxation, refolding of immunoglobulin domains was observed.

2,856 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid–solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The promise of improved thermoelectric materials and problems of thermal management of optoelectronic devices have stimulated extensive studies of semiconductor superlattices; agreement between experiment and theory is generally poor. Advances in measurement methods, e.g., the 3ω method, time-domain thermoreflectance, sources of coherent phonons, microfabricated test structures, and the scanning thermal microscope, are enabling new capabilities for nanoscale thermal metrology.

2,736 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Aug 1998-Nature
TL;DR: The design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNA that self-assemble from synthetic DNA double-crossover molecules that create specific periodic patterns on the nanometre scale are reported.
Abstract: Molecular self-assembly presents a `bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of objects specified with nanometre precision. DNA molecular structures and intermolecular interactions are particularly amenable to the design and synthesis of complex molecular objects. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNA that self-assemble from synthetic DNA double-crossover molecules. Intermolecular interactions between the structural units are programmed by the design of `sticky ends' that associate according to Watson-Crick complementarity, enabling us to create specific periodic patterns on the nanometre scale. The patterned crystals have been visualized by atomic force microscopy.

2,542 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Surface microscopy using vacuum tunneling is demonstrated for the first time. Topographic pictures of surfaces on an atomic scale have been obtained. Examples of resolved monoatomic steps and surface reconstructions are shown for (110) surfaces of CaIrSn 4 and Au.

4,131 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1982-
TL;DR: This review describes the advantages of employing silicon as a mechanical material, the relevant mechanical characteristics of silicon, and the processing techniques which are specific to micromechanical structures.
Abstract: Single-crystal silicon is being increasingly employed in a variety of new commercial products not because of its well-established electronic properties, but rather because of its excellent mechanical properties. In addition, recent trends in the engineering literature indicate a growing interest in the use of silicon as a mechanical material with the ultimate goal of developing a broad range of inexpensive, batch-fabricated, high-performance sensors and transducers which are easily interfaced with the rapidly proliferating microprocessor. This review describes the advantages of employing silicon as a mechanical material, the relevant mechanical characteristics of silicon, and the processing techniques which are specific to micromechanical structures. Finally, the potentials of this new technology are illustrated by numerous detailed examples from the literature. It is clear that silicon will continue to be aggressively exploited in a wide variety of mechanical applications complementary to its traditional role as an electronic material. Furthermore, these multidisciplinary uses of silicon will significantly alter the way we think about all types of miniature mechanical devices and components.

2,659 citations

James R. Matey1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Variations in topography and material properties of the surface layer of a body are observed in microscopic imaging using a scanning capacitance probe. The acronym SCaM identifying the process and apparatus is derived from the phrase scanning capacitance microscope. The material properties observable by SCaM are the surface-electric property representative of the complex dielectric constant of the surface material and the surface-mechanical property representative of the elastic constant of the surface material.

274 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

244 citations

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