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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41589-021-00742-5

Discovery of a first-in-class CDK2 selective degrader for AML differentiation therapy.

04 Mar 2021-Nature Chemical Biology (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 17, Iss: 5, pp 567-575
Abstract: The discovery of effective therapeutic treatments for cancer via cell differentiation instead of antiproliferation remains a great challenge. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inactivation, which overcomes the differentiation arrest of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, may be a promising method for AML treatment. However, there is no available selective CDK2 inhibitor. More importantly, the inhibition of only the enzymatic function of CDK2 would be insufficient to promote notable AML differentiation. To further validate the role and druggability of CDK2 involved in AML differentiation, a suitable chemical tool is needed. Therefore, we developed first-in-class CDK2-targeted proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), which promoted rapid and potent CDK2 degradation in different cell lines without comparable degradation of other targets, and induced remarkable differentiation of AML cell lines and primary patient cells. These data clearly demonstrated the practicality and importance of PROTACs as alternative tools for verifying CDK2 protein functions.

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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13046-021-02096-1
Yuanbo Cui1, Chunyan Zhang1, Shanshan Ma1, Zhe Li1  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) controls cell proliferation and plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification now is recognized as a master driver of RNA function to maintain homeostasis in cancer cells. However, how m6A regulates LncRNA function and its role in tumorigenesis of ESCC remain unclear. Methods Multiple ESCC datasets were used to analyze gene expression in tumor tissues and normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier method and the ROC curve were conducted to evaluate the prognostic value and diagnostic value of LINC00022 in ESCC, respectively. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were employed to investigate the effects of LINC00022 on ESCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis, colorimetric m6A assay, RIP, MeRIP and co-IP was performed to explore the epigenetic mechanism of LINC00022 up-regulation in ESCC. Results Here we report that m6A demethylation of LncRNA LINC00022 by fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) promotes tumor growth of ESCC in vivo. Clinically, we revealed that LINC00022 was up-regulated in primary ESCC samples and was predictive of poor clinical outcome for ESCC patients. Mechanistically, LINC00022 directly binds to p21 protein and promotes its ubiquitination-mediated degradation, thereby facilitating cell-cycle progression and proliferation. Further, the elevated FTO in ESCC decreased m6A methylation of LINC00022 transcript, leading to the inhibition of LINC00022 decay via the m6A reader YTHDF2. Over-expression of FTO was shown to drive LINC00022-dependent cell proliferation and tumor growth of ESCC. Conclusions Thus, this study demonstrated m6A-mediated epigenetic modification of LncRNA contributes to the tumorigenesis in ESCC and LINC00022, specific target of m6A, serves as a potential biomarker for this malignancy.

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Topics: N6-Methyladenosine (52%), Carcinogenesis (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.BIOCHEM.1C00377
02 Jun 2021-Biochemistry
Abstract: SHP2 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a critical role in the full activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway upon stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, which are frequently amplified or mutationally activated in human cancer. In addition, activating mutations in SHP2 result in developmental disorders and hematologic malignancies. Several allosteric inhibitors have been developed for SHP2 and are currently in clinical trials. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a SHP2 PROTAC created by conjugating RMC-4550 with pomalidomide using a PEG linker. This molecule is highly selective for SHP2, induces degradation of SHP2 in leukemic cells at submicromolar concentrations, inhibits MAPK signaling, and suppresses cancer cell growth. SHP2 PROTACs serve as an alternative strategy for targeting ERK-dependent cancers and are useful tools alongside allosteric inhibitors for dissecting the mechanisms by which SHP2 exerts its oncogenic activity.

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Topics: Receptor tyrosine kinase (59%), Protein tyrosine phosphatase (55%), Allosteric regulation (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13215506
02 Nov 2021-Cancers
Abstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family of proteins play prominent roles in transcription, mRNA processing, and cell cycle regulation, making them attractive cancer targets. Palbociclib was the first FDA-approved CDK inhibitor that non-selectively targets the ATP binding sites of CDK4 and CDK6. In this review, we will briefly inventory CDK inhibitors that are either part of over 30 active clinical trials or recruiting patients. The lack of selectivity among CDKs and dose-limiting toxicities are major challenges associated with the development of CDK inhibitors. Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) and Molecular Glues have emerged as alternative therapeutic modalities to target proteins. PROTACs and Molecular glues utilize the cellular protein degradation machinery to destroy the target protein. PROTACs are heterobifunctional molecules that form a ternary complex with the target protein and E3-ligase by making two distinct small molecule-protein interactions. On the other hand, Molecular glues function by converting the target protein into a "neo-substrate" for an E3 ligase. Unlike small molecule inhibitors, preclinical studies with CDK targeted PROTACs have exhibited improved CDK selectivity. Moreover, the efficacy of PROTACs and molecular glues are not tied to the dose of these molecular entities but to the formation of the ternary complex. Here, we provide an overview of PROTACs and molecular glues that modulate CDK function as emerging therapeutic modalities.

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Topics: Cyclin-dependent kinase (57%), CDK inhibitor (56%), Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJMECH.2021.113714
Lin Yue1, Yaojie Shi1, Xingping Su1, Liang Ouyang1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal disease with limited therapeutic options and a particularly poor prognosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), promising targets for the treatment of IPF, have been identified as playing a pivotal role in IPF. Although the pathological processes of MMPs and IPF have been verified, there are no MMP inhibitors for the treatment of IPF in the clinic. In this review, we will present the latest developments in MMP inhibitors, including pharmacophores, binding modes, selectivity and optimization strategies. In addition, we will also discuss the future development direction of MMP inhibitors based on emerging tools and techniques.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJMECH.2021.113749
Chao Wang1, Yujing Zhang1, Yudong Wu1, Dongming Xing2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Protease-targeted chimeras (PROTACs) are a new technology that is receiving much attention in the treatment of diseases. The mechanism is to inhibit protein function by hijacking the ubiquitin E3 ligase for protein degradation. Heterogeneous bifunctional PROTACs contain a ligand for recruiting E3 ligase, a linker, and another ligand to bind to the target protein for degradation. A variety of small-molecule PROTACs (CRBN, VHL, IAPs, MDM2, DCAF15, DCAF16, and RNF114-based PROTACs) have been identified so far. In particular, CRBN-based PROTACs (e.g., ARV-110 and ARV-471) have received more attention for their promising therapeutic intervention. To date, CRBN-based PRTOACs have been extensively explored worldwide and have excelled not only in cancer diseases but also in cardiovascular diseases, immune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive update on the latest research progress in CRBN-based PRTOACs area. Following the criteria, such as disease area and drug target class, we will present the degradants in alphabetical order by target. We also provide our own perspective on the future prospects and potential challenges facing PROTACs.

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Topics: Protein degradation (54%)

1 Citations


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51 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1947
Ting-Chao Chou1Institutions (1)
15 Jan 2010-Cancer Research
Abstract: This brief perspective article focuses on the most common errors and pitfalls, as well as the do's and don'ts in drug combination studies, in terms of experimental design, data acquisition, data interpretation, and computerized simulation. The Chou-Talalay method for drug combination is based on the median-effect equation, derived from the mass-action law principle, which is the unified theory that provides the common link between single entity and multiple entities, and first order and higher order dynamics. This general equation encompasses the Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Henderson-Hasselbalch, and Scatchard equations in biochemistry and biophysics. The resulting combination index (CI) theorem of Chou-Talalay offers quantitative definition for additive effect (CI = 1), synergism (CI 1) in drug combinations. This theory also provides algorithms for automated computer simulation for synergism and/or antagonism at any effect and dose level, as shown in the CI plot and isobologram, respectively.

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3,528 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-019-09234-6
Yingyao Zhou1, Bin Zhou1, Lars Pache2, Max W. Chang3  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: A critical component in the interpretation of systems-level studies is the inference of enriched biological pathways and protein complexes contained within OMICs datasets Successful analysis requires the integration of a broad set of current biological databases and the application of a robust analytical pipeline to produce readily interpretable results Metascape is a web-based portal designed to provide a comprehensive gene list annotation and analysis resource for experimental biologists In terms of design features, Metascape combines functional enrichment, interactome analysis, gene annotation, and membership search to leverage over 40 independent knowledgebases within one integrated portal Additionally, it facilitates comparative analyses of datasets across multiple independent and orthogonal experiments Metascape provides a significantly simplified user experience through a one-click Express Analysis interface to generate interpretable outputs Taken together, Metascape is an effective and efficient tool for experimental biologists to comprehensively analyze and interpret OMICs-based studies in the big data era

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Topics: Biological database (52%), Gene Annotation (52%)

2,514 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CUB.2003.09.024
14 Oct 2003-Current Biology
Abstract: Background: Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and their cyclin regulatory subunits control cell growth and division. Cdk2/cyclin E complexes are thought to be required because they phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and drive cells through the G1/S transition into the S phase of the cell cycle. In addition, Cdk2 associates with cyclin A, which itself is essential for cell proliferation during early embryonic development. Results: In order to study the functions of Cdk2 in vivo, we generated Cdk2 knockout mice. Surprisingly, these mice are viable, and therefore Cdk2 is not an essential gene in the mouse. However, Cdk2 is required for germ cell development; both male and female Cdk2 −/− mice are sterile. Immunoprecipitates of cyclin E1 complexes from Cdk2 −/− spleen extracts displayed no activity toward histone H1. Cyclin A2 complexes were active in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), embryo extracts and in spleen extracts from young animals. In contrast, there was little cyclin A2 kinase activity in immortalized MEFs and spleen extracts from adult animals. Cdk2 −/− MEFs proliferate but enter delayed into S phase. Ectopic expression of Cdk2 in Cdk2 −/− MEFs rescued the delayed entry into S phase. Conclusions: Although Cdk2 is not an essential gene in the mouse, it is required for germ cell development and meiosis. Loss of Cdk2 affects the timing of S phase, suggesting that Cdk2 is involved in regulating progression through the mitotic cell cycle.

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Topics: Cyclin A (68%), Cyclin E (67%), Cyclin D (66%) ... show more

623 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1182/BLOOD-2009-05-222034
01 Oct 2009-Blood
Abstract: Activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 are present in up to approximately 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, implicating FLT3 as a driver of the disease and therefore as a target for therapy. We report the characterization of AC220, a second-generation FLT3 inhibitor, and a comparison of AC220 with the first-generation FLT3 inhibitors CEP-701, MLN-518, PKC-412, sorafenib, and sunitinib. AC220 exhibits low nanomolar potency in biochemical and cellular assays and exceptional kinase selectivity, and in animal models is efficacious at doses as low as 1 mg/kg given orally once daily. The data reveal that the combination of excellent potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties is unique to AC220, which therefore is the first drug candidate with a profile that matches the characteristics desirable for a clinical FLT3 inhibitor.

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Topics: Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (64%), Myeloid leukemia (60%), Quizartinib (58%) ... show more

507 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCHEMBIO.2329
M.S. Gadd1, Andrea Testa1, Xavier Lucas1, Kwok-Ho Chan1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Inducing macromolecular interactions with small molecules to activate cellular signaling is a challenging goal. PROTACs (proteolysis-targeting chimeras) are bifunctional molecules that recruit a target protein in proximity to an E3 ubiquitin ligase to trigger protein degradation. Structural elucidation of the key ternary ligase-PROTAC-target species and its impact on target degradation selectivity remain elusive. We solved the crystal structure of Brd4 degrader MZ1 in complex with human VHL and the Brd4 bromodomain (Brd4BD2). The ligand folds into itself to allow formation of specific intermolecular interactions in the ternary complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies, supported by surface mutagenesis and proximity assays, are consistent with pronounced cooperative formation of ternary complexes with Brd4BD2. Structure-based-designed compound AT1 exhibits highly selective depletion of Brd4 in cells. Our results elucidate how PROTAC-induced de novo contacts dictate preferential recruitment of a target protein into a stable and cooperative complex with an E3 ligase for selective degradation.

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Topics: Ternary complex (61%), Protein degradation (60%), Proteolysis targeting chimera (58%) ... show more

403 Citations


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