scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

High-resolution aliasing-free optical beam steering

20 Aug 2016-Vol. 3, Iss: 8, pp 887-890

AbstractMany applications, including laser (LIDAR) mapping, free-space optical communications, and spatially resolved optical sensors, demand compact, robust solutions to steering an optical beam. Fine target addressability (high steering resolution) in these systems requires simultaneously achieving a wide steering angle and a small beam divergence, but this is difficult due to the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and steering range. So far, to our knowledge, chip-based two-axis optical phased arrays have achieved a resolution of no more than 23 resolvable spots in the phased-array axis. Here we report, using non-uniform emitter spacing on a large-scale emitter array, a dramatically higher-performance two-axis steerable optical phased array fabricated in a 300 mm CMOS facility with over 500 resolvable spots and 80° steering in the phased-array axis (measurement limited) and a record small divergence in both axes (0.14°). Including the demonstrated steering range in the other (wavelength-controlled) axis, this amounts to two-dimensional beam steering to more than 60,000 resolvable points.

Topics: Phased-array optics (66%), Beam steering (65%), Beam divergence (55%), Free-space optical communication (53%), Light beam (51%)

...read more

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This first demonstration of coherent solid-state light detection and ranging (LIDAR) using optical phased arrays in a silicon photonics platform is presented and paves the way for disruptive low-cost and compact LIDAR on-chip technology.
Abstract: We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of coherent solid-state light detection and ranging (LIDAR) using optical phased arrays in a silicon photonics platform. An integrated transmitting and receiving frequency-modulated continuous-wave circuit was initially developed and tested to confirm on-chip ranging. Simultaneous distance and velocity measurements were performed using triangular frequency modulation. Transmitting and receiving optical phased arrays were added to the system for on-chip beam collimation, and solid-state beam steering and ranging measurements using this system are shown. A cascaded optical phase shifter architecture with multiple groups was used to simplify system control and allow for a compact packaged device. This system was fabricated within a 300 mm wafer CMOS-compatible platform and paves the way for disruptive low-cost and compact LIDAR on-chip technology.

295 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using the same silicon nitride platform and phased array architecture, it is demonstrated that the first large-aperture visible nanophotonic phased array at 635 nm with an aperture size of 0.064°×0.074° is demonstrated, to the best of the authors' knowledge.
Abstract: We demonstrate passive large-scale nanophotonic phased arrays in a CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform. Silicon nitride waveguides are used to allow for higher input power and lower phase variation compared to a silicon-based distribution network. A phased array at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm is demonstrated with an ultra-large aperture size of 4 mm×4 mm, achieving a record small and near diffraction-limited spot size of 0.021°×0.021° with a side lobe suppression of 10 dB. A main beam power of 400 mW is observed. Using the same silicon nitride platform and phased array architecture, we also demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first large-aperture visible nanophotonic phased array at 635 nm with an aperture size of 0.5 mm×0.5 mm and a spot size of 0.064°×0.074°.

167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present high-performance integrated optical phased arrays along with first-of-their-kind light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and free-space data communication demonstrators. First, record-performance optical phased array components are shown with low-power phase shifters and high-directionality waveguide grating antennas. Then, one-dimensional (1-D) 512-element optical phased arrays are demonstrated with record low-power operation ( $ 1 mW total), large steering ranges, and high-speed two-dimensional (2-D) beam steering ( $ 30 $\mu$ s phase shifter time constant). Next, by utilizing optical phased arrays, we show coherent 2-D solid-state LiDAR on diffusive targets with simultaneous velocity extraction at a range of nearly 200 m. In addition, the first demonstration of 3-D coherent LiDAR with optical phased arrays is presented with raster-scanning arrays. Finally, lens-free chip-to-chip free-space optical communication links up to 50 m are shown, including a demonstration of a steerable transmitter to multiple optical phased array receivers at a 1 Gb/s data rate. This paper shows the most advanced silicon photonics solid-state beam steering to date with relevant demonstrators in practical applications.

134 citations


Cites background from "High-resolution aliasing-free optic..."

  • ...such as planar lenses [1], reflective optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) [2], and integrated optical phased arrays (OPA) [3]....

    [...]

  • ...Using an aperiodic pitch can increase the steering range at the cost of an increased background noise and lower main beam efficiency [3], [37]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A large-scale monolithic silicon nanophotonic phased array on a chip creates and dynamically steers a high-resolution optical beam in free space, enabling emerging applications in sensing, imaging, and communication.
Abstract: A large-scale monolithic silicon nanophotonic phased array on a chip creates and dynamically steers a high-resolution optical beam in free space, enabling emerging applications in sensing, imaging, and communication. The scalable architecture leverages sub-array structure, mitigating the impact of process variation on the phased array performance. In addition, sharing control electronics among multiple optical modulators in the scalable architecture reduces the number of digital-to-analog converters (DACs) required for an $N^{2}$ array from $\mathcal {O}(N^{2})$ to $\mathcal {O}(N)$ , allowing a small silicon footprint. An optical phased array for 1550-nm wavelength with 1024 uniformly spaced optical grating antennas, 1192 optical variable phase shifters, and 168 optical variable attenuators is integrated into a 5.7 mm $\times$ 6.4 mm chip in a commercial 180-nm silicon-on-insulator RF CMOS technology. The control signals for the optical variable phase shifters and attenuators are provided by 136 DACs with 14-bit nonuniform resolution using 2.5-V input-output transistors. The implemented phased array can create 0.03° narrow optical beams that can be steered unambiguously within ±22.5°.

134 citations


Cites background from "High-resolution aliasing-free optic..."

  • ...At optical frequencies, electronically controlled solid-state optical phased arrays [10]–[21] have been demonstrated since 1990s with less than 128 array elements by either heterogeneous or monolithic integration....

    [...]

  • ...The largest tunable optical phased array reported to date [21] has only 128 array elements....

    [...]

  • ...2 visualizes the tradeoff between beam-steering range and beamwidth for the largest value of κ N/d from [21],...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the past centuries, the scale of engineering optics has evolved toward two opposite directions: one is represented by giant telescopes with apertures larger than tens of meters and the other is the rapidly developing micro/nano-optics and nanophotonics. At the nanoscale, subwavelength light-matter interaction is blended with classic and quantum effects in various functional materials such as noble metals, semiconductors, phase-change materials, and 2D materials, which provides unprecedented opportunities to upgrade the performance of classic optical devices and overcome the fundamental and engineering difficulties faced by traditional optical engineers. Here, the research motivations and recent advances in subwavelength artificial structures are summarized, with a particular emphasis on their practical applications in super-resolution and large-aperture imaging systems, as well as highly efficient and spectrally selective absorbers and emitters. The role of dispersion engineering and near-field coupling in the form of catenary optical fields is highlighted, which reveals a methodology to engineer the electromagnetic response of complex subwavelength structures. Challenges and tentative solutions are presented regarding multiscale design, optimization, fabrication, and system integration, with the hope of providing recipes to transform the theoretical and technological breakthroughs on subwavelength hierarchical structures to the next generation of engineering optics, namely Engineering Optics 2.0.

96 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jan 2013-Nature
TL;DR: This work demonstrates that a robust design, together with state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor technology, allows large-scale NPAs to be implemented on compact and inexpensive nanophotonic chips and therefore extends the functionalities of phased arrays beyond conventional beam focusing and steering, opening up possibilities for large- scale deployment.
Abstract: A large-scale silicon nanophotonic phased array with more than 4,000 antennas is demonstrated using a state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process, enabling arbitrary holograms with tunability, which brings phased arrays to many new technological territories. Nanophotonic approaches allow the construction of chip-scale arrays of optical nanoantennas capable of producing radiation patterns in the far field. This could be useful for a range of applications in communications, LADAR (laser detection and ranging) and three-dimensional holography. Until now this technology has been restricted to one-dimensional or small two-dimensional arrays. This paper reports the construction of a large-scale silicon nanophotonic phased array containing 4,096 optical nanoantennas balanced in power and aligned in phase. The array was used to generate a complex radiation pattern—the MIT logo—in the far field. The authors show that this type of nanophotonic phased array can be actively tuned, and in some cases the beam is steerable. Electromagnetic phased arrays at radio frequencies are well known and have enabled applications ranging from communications to radar, broadcasting and astronomy1. The ability to generate arbitrary radiation patterns with large-scale phased arrays has long been pursued. Although it is extremely expensive and cumbersome to deploy large-scale radiofrequency phased arrays2, optical phased arrays have a unique advantage in that the much shorter optical wavelength holds promise for large-scale integration3. However, the short optical wavelength also imposes stringent requirements on fabrication. As a consequence, although optical phased arrays have been studied with various platforms4,5,6,7,8 and recently with chip-scale nanophotonics9,10,11,12, all of the demonstrations so far are restricted to one-dimensional or small-scale two-dimensional arrays. Here we report the demonstration of a large-scale two-dimensional nanophotonic phased array (NPA), in which 64 × 64 (4,096) optical nanoantennas are densely integrated on a silicon chip within a footprint of 576 μm × 576 μm with all of the nanoantennas precisely balanced in power and aligned in phase to generate a designed, sophisticated radiation pattern in the far field. We also show that active phase tunability can be realized in the proposed NPA by demonstrating dynamic beam steering and shaping with an 8 × 8 array. This work demonstrates that a robust design, together with state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor technology, allows large-scale NPAs to be implemented on compact and inexpensive nanophotonic chips. In turn, this enables arbitrary radiation pattern generation using NPAs and therefore extends the functionalities of phased arrays beyond conventional beam focusing and steering, opening up possibilities for large-scale deployment in applications such as communication, laser detection and ranging, three-dimensional holography and biomedical sciences, to name just a few.

822 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1998
Abstract: A period of rapid growth and change in the display industry has recently given rise to many new display technologies. One such technology, the Digital Micromirror Device/sup TM/ (DMD), developed at Texas Instruments, represents a unique application of microelectromechanical systems to the area of projection displays. In this paper, we describe a representative example of a DMD-based projection display engine, the digital display engine (DDE). The DDE is based on a single-DMD device having array dimensions of 800/spl times/600 elements, illuminated by a metal halide arc lamp through a compact optics train. The engine is designed for portable and fixed conference-room graphics and video display applications, and many design decisions were made to tailor the engine for its intended venue. The design of the projection engine optics and electronics is discussed, along with the basic operation, manufacture, and reliability of the DMD itself.

627 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A 16-channel, independently tuned waveguide surface grating optical phased array in silicon for two dimensional beam steering with a total field of view of 20° x 14° and full-window background peak suppression of 10 dB is demonstrated.
Abstract: We demonstrate a 16-channel, independently tuned waveguide surface grating optical phased array in silicon for two dimensional beam steering with a total field of view of 20° x 14°, beam width of 0.6° x 1.6°, and full-window background peak suppression of 10 dB.

308 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An integrated approach is followed in which a 1D optical phased array is fabricated on silicon-on-insulator in which continuous thermo-optical steering of 2.3 degrees and wavelength steering of 14.1 degrees is reported.
Abstract: Optical phased arrays are versatile components enabling rapid and precise beam steering. An integrated approach is followed in which a 1D optical phased array is fabricated on silicon-on-insulator. The optical phased array consists of 16 parallel grating couplers spaced 2 mum apart. Steering in one direction is done thermo-optically by means of a titanium electrode on top of the structure using the phased array principle, while steering in the other direction is accomplished by wavelength tuning. At a wavelength of 1550 nm, continuous thermo-optical steering of 2.3 degrees and wavelength steering of 14.1 degrees is reported.

239 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
H. Unz1
Abstract: A linear array with general arbitrarily distributed elements is discussed. A matrix relationship is found between the elements of the array and its far-zone pattern. The lower bound of the stored energy and the Q factor of the array are found. A figure of merit for the array is defined.

227 citations