Journal ArticleDOI

# Influence of transition metal doping on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of TiO2 films deposited on Si substrates by a sol-gel process.

, Hui Kong2
19 Dec 2013-Nanoscale Research Letters (Springer)-Vol. 8, Iss: 1, pp 533-533

TL;DR: It is found that the magnetizations of the TM-doped TiO2 films decrease with increasing dopant content, which is related to electric disorder due to the ART.

AbstractTransition metal (TM)-doped TiO2 films (TM = Co, Ni, and Fe) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by a sol–gel method. With the same dopant content, Co dopants catalyze the anatase-to-rutile transformation (ART) more obviously than Ni and Fe doping. This is attributed to the different strain energy induced by the different dopants. The optical properties of TM-doped TiO2 films were studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry data. With increasing dopant content, the optical band gap (EOBG) shifts to lower energy. With the same dopant content, the EOBG of Co-doped TiO2 film is the smallest and that of Fe-doped TiO2 film is the largest. The results are related to electric disorder due to the ART. Ferromagnetic behaviors were clearly observed for TM-doped TiO2 films except the undoped TiO2 film which is weakly magnetic. Additionally, it is found that the magnetizations of the TM-doped TiO2 films decrease with increasing dopant content.

Topics: Dopant (59%), Doping (53%), Band gap (52%)

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TL;DR: Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1)-Mn (x)Te and is used to predict materials with T (C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.
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### "Influence of transition metal dopin..." refers methods in this paper

• ...Some theory models, such as the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange [4], super exchange [5], double exchange [6], magnetic polarons [7], and F-center exchange mechanism [8], have been used to explain ferromagnetism in transitionmetal-element-doped TiO2....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed thatferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band.
Abstract: Dilute ferromagnetic oxides having Curie temperatures far in excess of 300 K and exceptionally large ordered moments per transition-metal cation challenge our understanding of magnetism in solids. These materials are high-k dielectrics with degenerate or thermally activated n-type semiconductivity. Conventional super-exchange or double-exchange interactions cannot produce long-range magnetic order at concentrations of magnetic cations of a few percent. We propose that ferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band. The Curie temperature in the mean-field approximation varies as (xdelta)(1/2) where x and delta are the concentrations of magnetic cations and donors, respectively. High Curie temperatures arise only when empty minority-spin or majority-spin d states lie at the Fermi level in the impurity band. The magnetic phase diagram includes regions of semiconducting and metallic ferromagnetism, cluster paramagnetism, spin glass and canted antiferromagnetism.

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### "Influence of transition metal dopin..." refers background in this paper

• ...Note that it is common to observe the development of an Urbach tail on doping transition metal oxides [45,46]....

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Abstract: Zener has suggested a type of interaction between the spins of magnetic ions which he named "double exchange." This occurs indirectly by means of spin coupling to mobile electrons which travel from one ion to the next. We have calculated this interaction for a pair of ions with general spin $S$ and with general transfer integral, $b$, and internal exchange integral $J$.One result is that while the states of large total spin have both the highest and lowest energies, their average energy is the same as for the states of low total spin. This should be applicable in the high-temperature expansion of the susceptibility, and if it is, indicates that the high-temperature Curie-Weiss constant $\ensuremath{\theta}$ should be zero, and $\frac{1}{\ensuremath{\chi}}$ vs $T$ a curved line. This is surprising in view of the fact that the manganites, in which double exchange has been presumed to be the interaction mechanism, obey a fairly good Curie-Weiss law.The results can be approximated rather well by a simple semiclassical model in which the spins of the ion cores are treated classically. This model is capable of rather easy extension to the problem of the whole crystal, but the resulting mathematical problem is not easily solved except in special circumstances, e.g., periodic disturbances (spin waves).

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### "Influence of transition metal dopin..." refers methods in this paper

• ...Some theory models, such as the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange [4], super exchange [5], double exchange [6], magnetic polarons [7], and F-center exchange mechanism [8], have been used to explain ferromagnetism in transitionmetal-element-doped TiO2....

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