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Journal ArticleDOI

Influence of transition metal doping on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of TiO2 films deposited on Si substrates by a sol-gel process.

19 Dec 2013-Nanoscale Research Letters (Springer)-Vol. 8, Iss: 1, pp 533-533
TL;DR: It is found that the magnetizations of the TM-doped TiO2 films decrease with increasing dopant content, which is related to electric disorder due to the ART.
Abstract: Transition metal (TM)-doped TiO2 films (TM = Co, Ni, and Fe) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by a sol–gel method. With the same dopant content, Co dopants catalyze the anatase-to-rutile transformation (ART) more obviously than Ni and Fe doping. This is attributed to the different strain energy induced by the different dopants. The optical properties of TM-doped TiO2 films were studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry data. With increasing dopant content, the optical band gap (EOBG) shifts to lower energy. With the same dopant content, the EOBG of Co-doped TiO2 film is the smallest and that of Fe-doped TiO2 film is the largest. The results are related to electric disorder due to the ART. Ferromagnetic behaviors were clearly observed for TM-doped TiO2 films except the undoped TiO2 film which is weakly magnetic. Additionally, it is found that the magnetizations of the TM-doped TiO2 films decrease with increasing dopant content.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among the samples, Fe-1wt% doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photocatalytic decolorization of RR198 under visible light irradiation.

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Ni doped barium titanate were investigated using solid state sintering technique and it was revealed from structural studies that the phase transformation from tetragonal to hexagonal phase is strongly influenced by Ni doping concentration.

92 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, undoped and Ni-doped TiO 2 ( x Ni ǫ = 0.00, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.50 ) thin films fabricated on glass substrates by using a combination of solid-state reaction and dip coating techniques.

67 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The enhanced rate capability and cycling stability were attributed to the enlargement of the NaO2 slab in the crystal structure because of Ti doping, which promoted Na-ion diffusion and prevented the phase transition from the P2 to the OP4/″Z″ structure.
Abstract: In this study, we developed a doping technology capable of improving the electrochemical performance, including the rate capability and cycling stability, of P2-type Na0.67Fe0.5Mn0.5O2 as a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. Our approach involved using titanium as a doping element to partly substitute either Fe or Mn in Na0.67Fe0.5Mn0.5O2. The Ti-substituted Na0.67Fe0.5Mn0.5O2 shows superior electrochemical properties compared to the pristine sample. We investigated the changes in the crystal structure, surface chemistry, and particle morphology caused by Ti doping and correlated these changes to the improved performance. The enhanced rate capability and cycling stability were attributed to the enlargement of the NaO2 slab in the crystal structure because of Ti doping. This promoted Na-ion diffusion and prevented the phase transition from the P2 to the OP4/″Z″ structure.

62 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Fe-Ni co-doped and Ag deposited anatase TiO2 (Fe-Ni/Ag/TiO2) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a simple one-pot solvothermal approach.

55 citations

References
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01 Jan 1995

14,960 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Feb 2000-Science
TL;DR: Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1)-Mn (x)Te and is used to predict materials with T (C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.
Abstract: Ferromagnetism in manganese compound semiconductors not only opens prospects for tailoring magnetic and spin-related phenomena in semiconductors with a precision specific to III-V compounds but also addresses a question about the origin of the magnetic interactions that lead to a Curie temperature (T(C)) as high as 110 K for a manganese concentration of just 5%. Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1-)(x)Mn(x)Te and is used to predict materials with T(C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.

7,062 citations


"Influence of transition metal dopin..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Some theory models, such as the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange [4], super exchange [5], double exchange [6], magnetic polarons [7], and F-center exchange mechanism [8], have been used to explain ferromagnetism in transitionmetal-element-doped TiO2....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed thatferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band.
Abstract: Dilute ferromagnetic oxides having Curie temperatures far in excess of 300 K and exceptionally large ordered moments per transition-metal cation challenge our understanding of magnetism in solids. These materials are high-k dielectrics with degenerate or thermally activated n-type semiconductivity. Conventional super-exchange or double-exchange interactions cannot produce long-range magnetic order at concentrations of magnetic cations of a few percent. We propose that ferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band. The Curie temperature in the mean-field approximation varies as (xdelta)(1/2) where x and delta are the concentrations of magnetic cations and donors, respectively. High Curie temperatures arise only when empty minority-spin or majority-spin d states lie at the Fermi level in the impurity band. The magnetic phase diagram includes regions of semiconducting and metallic ferromagnetism, cluster paramagnetism, spin glass and canted antiferromagnetism.

2,743 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
S. H. Wemple1, M. DiDomenico1
TL;DR: In this article, a single effectiveoscillator fit was used to analyze refractive-index dispersion data below the interband absorption edge in more than 100 widely different solids and liquids.
Abstract: Refractive-index dispersion data below the interband absorption edge in more than 100 widely different solids and liquids are analyzed using a single-effective-oscillator fit of the form ${n}^{2}\ensuremath{-}1=\frac{{E}_{d}{E}_{0}}{({E}_{0}^{2}\ensuremath{-}{\ensuremath{\hbar}}^{2}{\ensuremath{\omega}}^{2})}$, where $\ensuremath{\hbar}\ensuremath{\omega}$ is the photon energy, ${E}_{0}$ is the single oscillator energy, and ${E}_{d}$ is the dispersion energy. The parameter ${E}_{d}$, which is a measure of the strength of interband optical transitions, is found to obey the simple empirical relationship ${E}_{d}=\ensuremath{\beta}{N}_{c}{Z}_{a}{N}_{e}$, where ${N}_{c}$ is the coordination number of the cation nearest neighbor to the anion, ${Z}_{a}$ is the formal chemical valency of the anion, ${N}_{e}$ is the effective number of valence electrons per anion (usually ${N}_{e}=8$), and $\ensuremath{\beta}$ is essentially two-valued, taking on the "ionic" value ${\ensuremath{\beta}}_{i}=0.26\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.04$ eV for halides and most oxides, and the "covalent" value ${\ensuremath{\beta}}_{c}=0.37\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.05$ eV for the tetrahedrally bonded ${A}^{N}{B}^{8\ensuremath{-}N}$ zinc-blende- and diamond-type structures, as well as for scheelite-structure oxides and some iodates and carbonates. Wurtzite-structure crystals form a transitional group between ionic and covalent crystal classes. Experimentally, it is also found that ${E}_{d}$ does not depend significantly on either the bandgap or the volume density of valence electrons. The experimental results are related to the fundamental ${\ensuremath{\epsilon}}_{2}$ spectrum via appropriately defined moment integrals. It is found, using relationships between moment integrals, that for a particularly simple choice of a model ${\ensuremath{\epsilon}}_{2}$ spectrum, viz., constant optical-frequency conductivity with high- and low-frequency cutoffs, the bandgap parameter ${E}_{a}$ in the high-frequency sum rule introduced by Hopfield provides the connection between the single-oscillator parameters (${E}_{0},{E}_{d}$) and the Phillips static-dielectric-constant parameters (${E}_{g},\ensuremath{\hbar}{\ensuremath{\omega}}_{p}$), i.e., ${(\ensuremath{\hbar}{\ensuremath{\omega}}_{p})}^{2}={E}_{a}{E}_{d} \mathrm{and} {E}_{g}^{2}={E}_{a}{E}_{0}$. Finally, it is suggested that the observed dependence of ${E}_{d}$ on coordination number and valency implies that an understanding of refractive-index behavior may lie in a localized molecular theory of optical transitions.

2,346 citations


"Influence of transition metal dopin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Note that it is common to observe the development of an Urbach tail on doping transition metal oxides [45,46]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that while the states of large total spin have both the highest and lowest energies, their average energy is the same as those of low total spin.
Abstract: Zener has suggested a type of interaction between the spins of magnetic ions which he named "double exchange." This occurs indirectly by means of spin coupling to mobile electrons which travel from one ion to the next. We have calculated this interaction for a pair of ions with general spin $S$ and with general transfer integral, $b$, and internal exchange integral $J$.One result is that while the states of large total spin have both the highest and lowest energies, their average energy is the same as for the states of low total spin. This should be applicable in the high-temperature expansion of the susceptibility, and if it is, indicates that the high-temperature Curie-Weiss constant $\ensuremath{\theta}$ should be zero, and $\frac{1}{\ensuremath{\chi}}$ vs $T$ a curved line. This is surprising in view of the fact that the manganites, in which double exchange has been presumed to be the interaction mechanism, obey a fairly good Curie-Weiss law.The results can be approximated rather well by a simple semiclassical model in which the spins of the ion cores are treated classically. This model is capable of rather easy extension to the problem of the whole crystal, but the resulting mathematical problem is not easily solved except in special circumstances, e.g., periodic disturbances (spin waves).

2,086 citations


"Influence of transition metal dopin..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Some theory models, such as the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange [4], super exchange [5], double exchange [6], magnetic polarons [7], and F-center exchange mechanism [8], have been used to explain ferromagnetism in transitionmetal-element-doped TiO2....

    [...]