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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10030530

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein Targets RIG-I-Like Receptor Pathways to Inhibit the Induction of Interferon Response.

02 Mar 2021-Cells (MDPI AG)-Vol. 10, Iss: 3, pp 530
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has resulted in the current pandemic. The lack of highly efficacious antiviral drugs that can manage this ongoing global emergency gives urgency to establishing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We characterized the role of the nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2 in modulating antiviral immunity. Overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 N resulted in the attenuation of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor-mediated interferon (IFN) production and IFN-induced gene expression. Similar to the SARS-CoV-1 N protein, SARS-CoV-2 N suppressed the interaction between tripartate motif protein 25 (TRIM25) and RIG-I. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 N inhibited polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-mediated IFN signaling at the level of Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interfered with the association between TBK1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of IRF3. We further found that both type I and III IFN production induced by either the influenza virus lacking the nonstructural protein 1 or the Zika virus were suppressed by the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Our findings provide insights into the molecular function of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein with respect to counteracting the host antiviral immune response.

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Topics: Interferon (57%), IRF3 (56%), Interferon regulatory factors (55%) ... read more

18 results found

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.06.446826
07 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the globally successful B.1.1.7 lineage, suggests viral adaptations to host selective pressures resulting in more efficient transmission. Although much effort has focused on Spike adaptation for viral entry and adaptive immune escape, B.1.1.7 mutations outside Spike likely contribute to enhance transmission. Here we used unbiased abundance proteomics, phosphoproteomics, mRNA sequencing and viral replication assays to show that B.1.1.7 isolates more effectively suppress host innate immune responses in airway epithelial cells. We found that B.1.1.7 isolates have dramatically increased subgenomic RNA and protein levels of Orf9b and Orf6, both known innate immune antagonists. Expression of Orf9b alone suppressed the innate immune response through interaction with TOM70, a mitochondrial protein required for RNA sensing adaptor MAVS activation, and Orf9b binding and activity was regulated via phosphorylation. We conclude that B.1.1.7 has evolved beyond the Spike coding region to more effectively antagonise host innate immune responses through upregulation of specific subgenomic RNA synthesis and increased protein expression of key innate immune antagonists. We propose that more effective innate immune antagonism increases the likelihood of successful B.1.1.7 transmission, and may increase in vivo replication and duration of infection.

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Topics: Innate immune system (61%), MRNA Sequencing (56%), Viral entry (53%) ... read more

44 Citations

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.28.446159
Guillaume Beucher, Marie-Lise Blondot1, A. Celle2, Noémie Pied1  +16 moreInstitutions (4)
28 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is at the origin of a persistent worldwide pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infections initiate in the bronchi of the upper respiratory tract and are able to disseminate to the lower respiratory tract eventually causing acute severe respiratory syndrome with a high degree of mortality in the elderly. Here we use reconstituted primary bronchial epithelia from adult and children donors to follow the infection dynamic following infection with SARS-CoV-2. We show that in bronchial epithelia derived from adult donors, infections initiate in multi-ciliated cells. Then, infection rapidly spread within 24-48h throughout the whole epithelia. Within 3-4 days, large apical syncytia form between multi-ciliated cells and basal cells, which dissipate into the apical lumen. We show that these syncytia are a significant source of the released infectious dose. In stark contrast to these findings, bronchial epithelia reconstituted from children donors are intrinsically more resistant to virus infection and show active restriction of virus spread. This restriction is paired with accelerated release of IFN compared to adult donors. Taken together our findings reveal apical syncytia formation as an underappreciated source of infectious virus for either local dissemination or release into the environment. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that children bronchial epithelia are more resistant to infection with SARS-CoV-2 providing experimental support for epidemiological observations that SARS-CoV-2 cases’ fatality is linked to age. Significance Statement Bronchial epithelia are the primary target for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our work uses reconstituted bronchial epithelia from adults and children. We show that infection of adult epithelia with SARS-CoV-2 is rapid and results in the synchronized release of large clusters of infected cells and syncytia into the apical lumen contributing to the released infectious virus dose. Infection of children derived bronchial epithelia revealed an intrinsic resistance to infection and virus spread, probably as a result of a faster onset of interferon secretion. Thus, our data provide direct evidence for the epidemiological observation that children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.

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5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CSBJ.2021.07.023
Yuan-Qin Min1, Mengzhuo Huang1, Xiulian Sun1, Fei Deng1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The on-going pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to unprecedented medical and socioeconomic crises. Although the viral pathogenesis remains elusive, deficiency of effective antiviral interferon (IFN) responses upon SARS-CoV-2 infection has been recognized as a hallmark of COVID-19 contributing to the disease pathology and progress. Recently, multiple proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2 have been shown to act as potential IFN antagonists with diverse possible mechanisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the strategies of SARS-CoV-2 for evasion of innate immunity (particularly the antiviral IFN responses), understanding of which will facilitate not only the elucidation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis but also the development of antiviral intervention therapies.

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Topics: Coronavirus (55%), Viral pathogenesis (54%)

4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41423-021-00752-2
Lanying Du1, Yang Yang2, Xiujuan Zhang1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) initiates the infection process by binding to the viral cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the S1 subunit of the viral spike (S) protein. This event is followed by virus-cell membrane fusion mediated by the S2 subunit, which allows virus entry into the host cell. Therefore, the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a key therapeutic target, and prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have focused on the development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) that target this protein. In this review, we summarize the nAbs targeting SARS-CoV-2 proteins that have been developed to date, with a focus on the N-terminal domain and RBD of the S protein. We also describe the roles that binding affinity, neutralizing activity, and protection provided by these nAbs play in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and discuss the potential to improve nAb efficiency against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. This review provides important information for the development of effective nAbs with broad-spectrum activity against current and future SARS-CoV-2 strains.

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Topics: Viral entry (54%)

3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13081439
23 Jul 2021-Viruses
Abstract: A weak production of INF-β along with an exacerbated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported during infection by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 encodes several proteins able to counteract the host immune system, which is believed to be one of the most important features contributing to the viral pathogenesis and development of a severe clinical picture. Previous reports have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 N protein, along with some non-structural and accessory proteins, efficiently suppresses INF-β production by interacting with RIG-I, an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) involved in the recognition of pathogen-derived molecules. In the present study, we better characterized the mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 N counteracts INF-β secretion and affects RIG-I signaling pathways. In detail, when the N protein was ectopically expressed, we noted a marked decrease in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation. The capability of the N protein to bind to, and probably mask, TRIM25 could be the consequence of its antagonistic activity. Furthermore, this interaction occurred at the SPRY domain of TRIM25, harboring the RNA-binding activity necessary for TRIM25 self-activation. Here, we describe new findings regarding the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the IFN system, filling some gaps for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms affecting the innate immune response in COVID-19.

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Topics: Pattern recognition receptor (59%), Innate immune system (55%), TRIM25 (54%) ... read more

3 Citations


39 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chaolin Huang1, Yeming Wang2, Xingwang Li3, Lili Ren4  +25 moreInstitutions (8)
24 Jan 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not.

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26,390 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41579-018-0118-9
Jie Cui1, Fang Li2, Zhengli Shi1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are two highly transmissible and pathogenic viruses that emerged in humans at the beginning of the 21st century. Both viruses likely originated in bats, and genetically diverse coronaviruses that are related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were discovered in bats worldwide. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of these two pathogenic coronaviruses and discuss their receptor usage; we also highlight the diversity and potential of spillover of bat-borne coronaviruses, as evidenced by the recent spillover of swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) to pigs. Coronaviruses have a broad host range and distribution, and some highly pathogenic lineages have spilled over to humans and animals. Here, Cui, Li and Shi explore the viral factors that enabled the emergence of diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome.

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2,810 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.04.026
28 May 2020-Cell
Abstract: Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.

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2,083 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan1, Kin-Hang Kok2, Kin-Hang Kok1, Zheng Zhu2  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A mysterious outbreak of atypical pneumonia in late 2019 was traced to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan of China. Within a few weeks, a novel coronavirus tentatively named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the World Health Organization. We performed bioinformatics analysis on a virus genome from a patient with 2019-nCoV infection and compared it with other related coronavirus genomes. Overall, the genome of 2019-nCoV has 89% nucleotide identity with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. The phylogenetic trees of their orf1a/b, Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleoprotein also clustered closely with those of the bat, civet and human SARS coronaviruses. However, the external subdomain of Spike's receptor binding domain of 2019-nCoV shares only 40% amino acid identity with other SARS-related coronaviruses. Remarkably, its orf3b encodes a completely novel short protein. Furthermore, its new orf8 likely encodes a secreted protein with an alpha-helix, following with a beta-sheet(s) containing six strands. Learning from the roles of civet in SARS and camel in MERS, hunting for the animal source of 2019-nCoV and its more ancestral virus would be important for understanding the origin and evolution of this novel lineage B betacoronavirus. These findings provide the basis for starting further studies on the pathogenesis, and optimizing the design of diagnostic, antiviral and vaccination strategies for this emerging infection.

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Topics: Coronavirus (65%), Betacoronavirus (59%)

1,786 Citations

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