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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELREP.2021.108777

Optic nerve regeneration screen identifies multiple genes restricting adult neural repair.

02 Mar 2021-Cell Reports (Elsevier)-Vol. 34, Iss: 9, pp 108777-108777
Abstract: Summary Adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) trauma interrupts neural networks and, because axonal regeneration is minimal, neurological deficits persist. Repair via axonal growth is limited by extracellular inhibitors and cell-autonomous factors. Based on results from a screen in vitro, we evaluate nearly 400 genes through a large-scale in vivo regeneration screen. Suppression of 40 genes using viral-driven short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration after optic nerve crush (ONC), and most are validated by separate CRISPR-Cas9 editing experiments. Expression of these axon-regeneration-suppressing genes is not significantly altered by axotomy. Among regeneration-limiting genes, loss of the interleukin 22 (IL-22) cytokine allows an early, yet transient, inflammatory response in the retina after injury. Reduced IL-22 drives concurrent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) pathways and upregulation of multiple neuron-intrinsic regeneration-associated genes (RAGs). Including IL-22, our screen identifies dozens of genes that limit CNS regeneration. Suppression of these genes in the context of axonal damage could support improved neural repair.

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Topics: Regeneration (biology) (54%), Retinal ganglion cell (52%), Axon (51%) ... show more
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10061426
08 Jun 2021-Cells
Abstract: As part of the central nervous system, mammalian retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) lack significant regenerative capacity. Glaucoma causes progressive and irreversible vision loss by damaging RGCs and their axons, which compose the optic nerve. To functionally restore vision, lost RGCs must be replaced. Despite tremendous advancements in experimental models of optic neuropathy that have elucidated pathways to induce endogenous RGC neuroprotection and axon regeneration, obstacles to achieving functional visual recovery through exogenous RGC transplantation remain. Key challenges include poor graft survival, low donor neuron localization to the host retina, and inadequate dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis with afferent amacrine and bipolar cells. In this review, we summarize the current state of experimental RGC transplantation, and we propose a set of standard approaches to quantifying and reporting experimental outcomes in order to guide a collective effort to advance the field toward functional RGC replacement and optic nerve regeneration.

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Topics: Retinal ganglion (61%), Retinal ganglion cell (58%), Optic nerve (56%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEULET.2021.136260
Agnieszka Lukomska1, Juhwan Kim1, Bruce A. Rheaume1, Jian Xing1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Projection neurons of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) do not spontaneously regenerate axons which have been damaged by an injury or disease, often leaving patients with permanent disabilities that affect motor, cognitive, or sensory functions. Although several molecular targets which promote some extent of axon regeneration in animal models have been identified, the resulting recovery is very limited, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the axonal regenerative failure in the CNS are still poorly understood. One of the most studied targets for axon regeneration in the CNS is the mTOR pathway. A number of developmentally regulated genes also have been found to play a role in CNS axon regeneration. Here, we found that Transcriptional Elongation Factor A Like 3 (Tceal3), belonging to the Bex/Tceal transcriptional regulator family, which also modulates the mTOR pathway, is developmentally upregulated in retinal ganglion cell (RGCs) projection CNS neurons, and suppresses their capacity to regenerate axons after injury.

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Topics: Axon (60%), PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (52%), Regeneration (biology) (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-94341-Y
21 Jul 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) lose their ability to grow axons during development. Adult RGCs thus fail to regenerate their axons after injury, leading to vision loss. To uncover mechanisms that promote regeneration of RGC axons, we identified transcription factors (TF) and open chromatin regions that are enriched in rat embryonic RGCs (high axon growth capacity) compared to postnatal RGCs (low axon growth capacity). We found that developmental stage-specific gene expression changes correlated with changes in promoter chromatin accessibility. Binding motifs for TFs such as CREB, CTCF, JUN and YY1 were enriched in the regions of the chromatin that were more accessible in embryonic RGCs. Proteomic analysis of purified rat RGC nuclei confirmed the expression of TFs with potential role in axon growth such as CREB, CTCF, YY1, and JUND. The CREB/ATF binding motif was widespread at the open chromatin region of known pro-regenerative TFs, supporting a role of CREB in regulating axon regeneration. Consistently, overexpression of CREB fused to the VP64 transactivation domain in mouse RGCs promoted axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Our study provides a map of the chromatin accessibility during RGC development and highlights that TF associated with developmental axon growth can stimulate axon regeneration in mature RGC.

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Topics: Axon (56%), Retinal ganglion (55%), CTCF (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13578-021-00670-W
Mei Yang1, Lan Jian1, Wei Fan1, Xing Chen1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
11 Aug 2021-Cell & Bioscience
Abstract: Background In the central nervous system (CNS), three types of myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) exert major inhibitory effects on nerve regeneration: Nogo-A, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). MAIs have two co-receptors, Nogo receptor (NgR) and paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB). Existing studies confirm that inhibiting NgR only exerted a modest disinhibitory effect in CNS. However, the inhibitory effects of PirB on nerve regeneration after binding to MAIs are controversial too. We aimed to further investigate the effect of PirB knockdown on the neuroprotection and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve injury in rats. Methods The differential expression of PirB in the retina was observed via immunofluorescence and western blotting after 1, 3, and 7 days of optic nerve injury (ONI). The retina was locally transfected with adeno-associated virus (AAV) PirB shRNA, then, the distribution of virus in tissues and cells was observed 21 days after AAV transfection to confirm the efficiency of PirB knockdown. Level of P-Stat3 and expressions of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were detected via western blotting. RGCs were directly labeled with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). The new axons of the optic nerve were specifically labeled with growth associated protein-43 (GAP43) via immunofluorescence. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP) was used to detect the P1 and N1 latency, as well as N1-P1, P1-N2 amplitude to confirm visual function. Results PirB expression in the retina was significantly increased after ONI. PirB knockdown was successful and significantly promoted P-Stat3 level and CNTF expression in the retina. PirB knockdown promoted the regeneration of optic nerve axons and improved the visual function indexes such as N1-P1 and P1-N2 amplitude. Conclusions PirB is one of the key molecules that inhibit the regeneration of the optic nerve, and inhibition of PirB has an excellent effect on promoting nerve regeneration, which allows the use of PirB as a target molecule to promote functional recovery after ONI.

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Topics: Retinal ganglion (55%), Optic nerve (54%), Retina (52%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10051078
Debasish Roy1, Andrea Tedeschi1Institutions (1)
01 May 2021-Cells
Abstract: Axons in the adult mammalian nervous system can extend over formidable distances, up to one meter or more in humans. During development, axonal and dendritic growth requires continuous addition of new membrane. Of the three major kinds of membrane lipids, phospholipids are the most abundant in all cell membranes, including neurons. Not only immature axons, but also severed axons in the adult require large amounts of lipids for axon regeneration to occur. Lipids also serve as energy storage, signaling molecules and they contribute to tissue physiology, as demonstrated by a variety of metabolic disorders in which harmful amounts of lipids accumulate in various tissues through the body. Detrimental changes in lipid metabolism and excess accumulation of lipids contribute to a lack of axon regeneration, poor neurological outcome and complications after a variety of central nervous system (CNS) trauma including brain and spinal cord injury. Recent evidence indicates that rewiring lipid metabolism can be manipulated for therapeutic gain, as it favors conditions for axon regeneration and CNS repair. Here, we review the role of lipids, lipid metabolism and ectopic lipid accumulation in axon growth, regeneration and CNS repair. In addition, we outline molecular and pharmacological strategies to fine-tune lipid composition and energy metabolism in neurons and non-neuronal cells that can be exploited to improve neurological recovery after CNS trauma and disease.

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Topics: Lipid metabolism (68%), Membrane lipids (58%), Axon (58%) ... show more
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105 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2015.05.002
Evan Z. Macosko1, Evan Z. Macosko2, Anindita Basu2, Anindita Basu1  +23 moreInstitutions (7)
21 May 2015-Cell
Abstract: Cells, the basic units of biological structure and function, vary broadly in type and state. Single-cell genomics can characterize cell identity and function, but limitations of ease and scale have prevented its broad application. Here we describe Drop-seq, a strategy for quickly profiling thousands of individual cells by separating them into nanoliter-sized aqueous droplets, associating a different barcode with each cell's RNAs, and sequencing them all together. Drop-seq analyzes mRNA transcripts from thousands of individual cells simultaneously while remembering transcripts' cell of origin. We analyzed transcriptomes from 44,808 mouse retinal cells and identified 39 transcriptionally distinct cell populations, creating a molecular atlas of gene expression for known retinal cell classes and novel candidate cell subtypes. Drop-seq will accelerate biological discovery by enabling routine transcriptional profiling at single-cell resolution. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

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4,167 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1084/JEM.20061308
Abstract: Th17 cells are a distinct lineage of effector CD4+ T cells characterized by their production of interleukin (IL)-17. We demonstrate that Th17 cells also expressed IL-22, an IL-10 family member, at substantially higher amounts than T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells. Similar to IL-17A, IL-22 expression was initiated by transforming growth factor β signaling in the context of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines. The subsequent expansion of IL-22–producing cells was dependent on IL-23. We further demonstrate that IL-22 was coexpressed in vitro and in vivo with both IL-17A and IL-17F. To study a functional relationship among these cytokines, we examined the expression of antimicrobial peptides by primary keratinocytes treated with combinations of IL-22, IL-17A, and IL-17F. IL-22 in conjunction with IL-17A or IL-17F synergistically induced the expression of β-defensin 2 and S100A9 and additively enhanced the expression of S100A7 and S100A8. Collectively, we have identified IL-22 as a new cytokine expressed by Th17 cells that synergizes with IL-17A or IL-17F to regulate genes associated with skin innate immunity.

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Topics: Interleukin 3 (63%), Interleukin 12 (63%), Interleukin 15 (62%) ... show more

2,078 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/416636A
11 Apr 2002-Nature
Abstract: The inability of axons to regenerate after a spinal cord injury in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) can lead to permanent paralysis. At sites of CNS injury, a glial scar develops, containing extracellular matrix molecules including chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). CSPGs are inhibitory to axon growth in vitro, and regenerating axons stop at CSPG-rich regions in vivo. Removing CSPG glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains attenuates CSPG inhibitory activity. To test the functional effects of degrading chondroitin sulphate (CS)-GAG after spinal cord injury, we delivered chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to the lesioned dorsal columns of adult rats. We show that intrathecal treatment with ChABC degraded CS-GAG at the injury site, upregulated a regeneration-associated protein in injured neurons, and promoted regeneration of both ascending sensory projections and descending corticospinal tract axons. ChABC treatment also restored post-synaptic activity below the lesion after electrical stimulation of corticospinal neurons, and promoted functional recovery of locomotor and proprioceptive behaviours. Our results demonstrate that CSPGs are important inhibitory molecules in vivo and suggest that their manipulation will be useful for treatment of human spinal injuries.

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Topics: Chondroitinase treatment (59%), Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (58%), Perineuronal net (57%) ... show more

2,010 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05505
Yan Zheng1, Dimitry M. Danilenko1, Patricia Valdez1, Ian Kasman1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
08 Feb 2007-Nature
Abstract: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis (acanthosis), infiltration of leukocytes into both the dermis and epidermis, and dilation and growth of blood vessels. The underlying cause of the epidermal acanthosis in psoriasis is still largely unknown. Recently, interleukin (IL)-23, a cytokine involved in the development of IL-17-producing T helper cells (T(H)17 cells), was found to have a potential function in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here we show that IL-22 is preferentially produced by T(H)17 cells and mediates the acanthosis induced by IL-23. We found that IL-23 or IL-6 can directly induce the production of IL-22 from both murine and human naive T cells. However, the production of IL-22 and IL-17 from T(H)17 cells is differentially regulated. Transforming growth factor-beta, although crucial for IL-17 production, actually inhibits IL-22 production. Furthermore, IL-22 mediates IL-23-induced acanthosis and dermal inflammation through the activation of Stat3 (signal transduction and activators of transcription 3) in vivo. Our results suggest that T(H)17 cells, through the production of both IL-22 and IL-17, might have essential functions in host defence and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. IL-22, as an effector cytokine produced by T cells, mediates the crosstalk between the immune system and epithelial cells.

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Topics: Interleukin 21 (64%), IL-2 receptor (62%), Acanthosis (62%) ... show more

1,735 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2014.3192
14 May 2014-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and in more actively participating in the care of patients affected by this condition. Objective To describe current evidence regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. Evidence Review A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and manuscript references for studies published in English between January 2000 and September 2013 on the topics open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. From the 4334 abstracts screened, 210 articles were selected that contained information on pathophysiology and treatment with relevance to primary care physicians. Findings The glaucomas are a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and resulting changes in the optic nerve head. Loss of ganglion cells is related to the level of intraocular pressure, but other factors may also play a role. Reduction of intraocular pressure is the only proven method to treat the disease. Although treatment is usually initiated with ocular hypotensive drops, laser trabeculoplasty and surgery may also be used to slow disease progression. Conclusions and Relevance Primary care physicians can play an important role in the diagnosis of glaucoma by referring patients with positive family history or with suspicious optic nerve head findings for complete ophthalmologic examination. They can improve treatment outcomes by reinforcing the importance of medication adherence and persistence and by recognizing adverse reactions from glaucoma medications and surgeries.

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Topics: Glaucoma (61%), Retinal ganglion (57%), Intraocular pressure (56%) ... show more

1,565 Citations


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