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Journal ArticleDOI

The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets

01 Apr 2013-Nature Chemistry (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 5, Iss: 4, pp 263-275

TL;DR: This Review describes how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics.
Abstract: Ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. In contrast to the graphene sheet, they are chemically versatile. Mono- or few-layered TMDs - obtained either through exfoliation of bulk materials or bottom-up syntheses - are direct-gap semiconductors whose bandgap energy, as well as carrier type (n- or p-type), varies between compounds depending on their composition, structure and dimensionality. In this Review, we describe how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications. They have been investigated as chemically active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and hydrosulfurization, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics. Their morphologies and properties are also useful for energy storage applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Chaoliang Tan1, Xiehong Cao2, Xiehong Cao1, Xue-Jun Wu1  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
17 Mar 2017-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials are introduced, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures, and the assortments of their synthetic methods are summarized.
Abstract: Since the discovery of mechanically exfoliated graphene in 2004, research on ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Highlighting their compelling physical, chemical, electronic, and optical properties, as well as their various potential applications, in this Review, we summarize the state-of-art progress on the ultrathin 2D nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on their recent advances. First, we introduce the unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures. The assortments of their synthetic methods are then summarized, including insights on their advantages and limitations, alongside some recommendations on suitable characterization techniques. We also discuss in detail the utilization of these ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for wide ranges of potential applications among the electronics/optoelectronics, electrocat...

2,618 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Fengnian Xia1, Han Wang2, Yichen Jia1Institutions (2)
TL;DR: Black phosphorus (BP), the most stable allotrope of phosphorus with strong intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, is reintroduced to the layered-material family and shows great potential for thin-film electronics, infrared optoelectronics and novel devices in which anisotropic properties are desirable.
Abstract: The applications of graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides in electronics are limited by their zero-bandgap and low mobility, respectively. Here, the authors demonstrate the potential of an emerging layered material—black phosphorous—for thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics.

2,566 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Mark A. Lukowski1, Andrew S. Daniel1, Fei Meng1, Audrey Forticaux1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Structural characterization and electrochemical studies confirmed that the nanosheets of the metallic MoS2 polymorph exhibit facile electrode kinetics and low-loss electrical transport and possess a proliferated density of catalytic active sites, which make these metallic nanOSheets a highly competitive earth-abundant HER catalyst.
Abstract: Promising catalytic activity from molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is attributed to active sites located along the edges of its two-dimensional layered crystal structure, but its performance is currently limited by the density and reactivity of active sites, poor electrical transport, and inefficient electrical contact to the catalyst. Here we report dramatically enhanced HER catalysis (an electrocatalytic current density of 10 mA/cm2 at a low overpotential of −187 mV vs RHE and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/decade) from metallic nanosheets of 1T-MoS2 chemically exfoliated via lithium intercalation from semiconducting 2H-MoS2 nanostructures grown directly on graphite. Structural characterization and electrochemical studies confirmed that the nanosheets of the metallic MoS2 polymorph exhibit facile electrode kinetics and low-loss electrical transport and possess a proliferated density of catalytic active sites. These distinct and previously unexploited features of 1T-MoS2 make ...

2,495 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jan 2014-ACS Nano
TL;DR: By critically assessing and comparing the performance of these devices with competing technologies, the merits and shortcomings of this emerging class of electronic materials are identified, thereby providing a roadmap for future development.
Abstract: With advances in exfoliation and synthetic techniques, atomically thin films of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides have recently been isolated and characterized. Their two-dimensional structure, coupled with a direct band gap in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, suggests suitability for digital electronics and optoelectronics. Toward that end, several classes of high-performance devices have been reported along with significant progress in understanding their physical properties. Here, we present a review of the architecture, operating principles, and physics of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors. By critically assessing and comparing the performance of these devices with competing technologies, the merits and shortcomings of this emerging class of electronic materials are identified, thereby providing a roadmap for future development.

1,996 citations


Cites background from "The chemistry of two-dimensional la..."

  • ...The TMDCmonolayer polytypes can be either trigonal prismatic (D3h point group, honeycomb motif) or octahedral (D3d point group, centeredhoneycomb motif) also referred to as 2H (1H for a monolayer) and 1T, respectively (Figure 1b).(8,35,37) The half-filled d-orbitals of group VIB transition metals (i....

    [...]

  • ...Various permutations of these elements result in over 40 different compounds, although not all of them are layered solids.(6,8,12,36) Amonolayer is defined here as a hexagonally ordered plane of metal atoms sandwiched between two hexagonally ordered planes of chalcogen atoms, where the formal oxidation states of themetal and chalcogen elements areþ4 and 2, respectively....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Fengnian Xia1, Han Wang2, Di Xiao3, Madan Dubey4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Dec 2014-Nature Photonics
Abstract: The optical properties of graphene and emerging two-dimensional materials including transition metal dichalcogenides are reviewed with an emphasis on nanophotonic applications. Two-dimensional materials exhibit diverse electronic properties, ranging from insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulphide, to semimetallic graphene. In this Review, we first discuss the optical properties and applications of various two-dimensional materials, and then cover two different approaches for enhancing their interactions with light: through their integration with external photonic structures, and through intrinsic polaritonic resonances. Finally, we present a narrow-bandgap layered material — black phosphorus — that serendipitously bridges the energy gap between the zero-bandgap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides. The plethora of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures, together with the array of available approaches for enhancing the light–matter interaction, offers the promise of scientific discoveries and nanophotonics technologies across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

1,936 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Kostya S. Novoselov1, Andre K. Geim1, Sergey V. Morozov, Da Jiang1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
22 Oct 2004-Science
TL;DR: Monocrystalline graphitic films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect.
Abstract: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.

48,846 citations


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Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.

18,972 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reviews the historical development of Transition metal dichalcogenides, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Abstract: Single-layer metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional semiconductors that present strong potential for electronic and sensing applications complementary to that of graphene.

11,301 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kin Fai Mak1, Changgu Lee2, James Hone1, Jie Shan3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy and the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure is traced.
Abstract: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy Through characterization by absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity spectroscopy, we trace the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure With decreasing thickness, the indirect band gap, which lies below the direct gap in the bulk material, shifts upwards in energy by more than 06 eV This leads to a crossover to a direct-gap material in the limit of the single monolayer Unlike the bulk material, the MoS₂ monolayer emits light strongly The freestanding monolayer exhibits an increase in luminescence quantum efficiency by more than a factor of 10⁴ compared with the bulk material

11,041 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Andre K. Geim1Institutions (1)
19 Jun 2009-Science
TL;DR: This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.
Abstract: Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have zero effective mass, and can travel for micrometers without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than that of copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases, and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a benchtop experiment. This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.

10,893 citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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2021942
2020944
2019960
2018998
2017920