Nicholas A. Peppas
Other affiliations: National Technical University, University of Texas System, University of Paris ...read more
Bio: Nicholas A. Peppas is an academic researcher from University of Texas at Austin. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Self-healing hydrogels & Drug delivery. The author has an hindex of 141, co-authored 825 publication(s) receiving 90533 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Nicholas A. Peppas include National Technical University & University of Texas System.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the role of dynamic swelling and the dissolution of the polymer matrix on the release mechanism was discussed, as well as the effect of the tracer/excipient ratio on the poly(vinyl alcohol) release profile.
Abstract: Porous hydrophilic discs were prepared from two grades of poly(vinyl alcohol) of varying degree of hydrolysis. The influence of the molecular size of the tracer used (potassium chloride, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin), that of the addition of a second water-soluble polymer poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol)) and the effect of the tracer/excipient ratio on the release profile were examined. Finally the role of the dynamic swelling and the dissolution of the polymer matrix on the release mechanism are discussed.
TL;DR: The aim of this article is to present a concise review on the applications of hydrogels in the pharmaceutical field, hydrogel characterization and analysis of drug release from such devices.
Abstract: The availability of large molecular weight protein- and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances in the field of molecular biology has given us new ways to treat a number of diseases. Synthetic hydrogels offer a possibly effective and convenient way to administer these compounds. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional networks, which are able to imbibe large amounts of water or biological fluids, and thus resemble, to a large extent, a biological tissue. They are insoluble due to the presence of chemical (tie-points, junctions) and/or physical crosslinks such as entanglements and crystallites. These materials can be synthesized to respond to a number of physiological stimuli present in the body, such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. The aim of this article is to present a concise review on the applications of hydrogels in the pharmaceutical field, hydrogel characterization and analysis of drug release from such devices.
06 Jun 2006-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: This work highlights recent developments in engineering uncrosslinked and crosslinked hydrophilic polymers for biomedical and biological applications and shows how such systems' intelligent behavior can be used in sensors, microarrays, and imaging.
Abstract: Hydrophilic polymers are the center of research emphasis in nanotechnology because of their perceived “intelligence”. They can be used as thin films, scaffolds, or nanoparticles in a wide range of biomedical and biological applications. Here we highlight recent developments in engineering uncrosslinked and crosslinked hydrophilic polymers for these applications. Natural, biohybrid, and synthetic hydrophilic polymers and hydrogels are analyzed and their thermodynamic responses are discussed. In addition, examples of the use of hydrogels for various therapeutic applications are given. We show how such systems’ intelligent behavior can be used in sensors, microarrays, and imaging. Finally, we outline challenges for the future in integrating hydrogels into biomedical applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, an exponential relation M t /M ∞ = kt n may be used to describe the Fickian and non-Fickian release behavior of release systems which are prepared by incorporation of a drug in a hydrophilic, initially glassy polymer.
Abstract: The previously (Ritger and Peppas, 1987) introduced exponential relation M t /M ∞ = kt n may be used to describe the Fickian and non-Fickian release behavior of swelling-controlled release systems which swell to a moderate equilibrium degree of swelling and are prepared by incorporation of a drug in a hydrophilic, initially glassy polymer. Again the diffusional exponent, n , is an important indicator of the mechanism of transport of a drug through the polymer. Analysis is presented for solute release from sheets, cylinders, spheres and polydisperse samples.
TL;DR: This work has shown that addition of PEG and PEG-containing copolymers to the surface of nanoparticles results in an increase in the blood circulation half-life of the particles by several orders of magnitude, and creates a hydrophilic protective layer around the nanoparticles that is able to repel the absorption of opsonin proteins via steric repulsion forces.
Abstract: The process of opsonization is one of the most important biological barriers to controlled drug delivery. Injectable polymeric nanoparticle carriers have the ability to revolutionize disease treatment via spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery. However, opsonin proteins present in the blood serum quickly bind to conventional non-stealth nanoparticles, allowing macrophages of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) to easily recognize and remove these drug delivery devices before they can perform their designed therapeutic function. To address these limitations, several methods have been developed to mask or camouflage nanoparticles from the MPS. Of these methods, the most preferred is the adsorption or grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the surface of nanoparticles. Addition of PEG and PEG-containing copolymers to the surface of nanoparticles results in an increase in the blood circulation half-life of the particles by several orders of magnitude. This method creates a hydrophilic protective layer around the nanoparticles that is able to repel the absorption of opsonin proteins via steric repulsion forces, thereby blocking and delaying the first step in the opsonization process.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
01 Feb 1988-Archives of Dermatology
TL;DR: The 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine welcomes Anthony Fauci to its editorial staff, in addition to more than 85 new contributors.
Abstract: The 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine welcomes Anthony Fauci to its editorial staff, in addition to more than 85 new contributors. While the organization of the book is similar to previous editions, major emphasis has been placed on disorders that affect multiple organ systems. Important advances in genetics, immunology, and oncology are emphasized. Many chapters of the book have been rewritten and describe major advances in internal medicine. Subjects that received only a paragraph or two of attention in previous editions are now covered in entire chapters. Among the chapters that have been extensively revised are the chapters on infections in the compromised host, on skin rashes in infections, on many of the viral infections, including cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, on sexually transmitted diseases, on diabetes mellitus, on disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, and on lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The major revisions in these chapters and many
01 Jun 2005-Biomaterials
TL;DR: This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
14 Jun 2009-Nature Materials
TL;DR: Probing the various interfaces of nanoparticle/biological interfaces allows the development of predictive relationships between structure and activity that are determined by nanomaterial properties such as size, shape, surface chemistry, roughness and surface coatings.
Abstract: Rapid growth in nanotechnology is increasing the likelihood of engineered nanomaterials coming into contact with humans and the environment. Nanoparticles interacting with proteins, membranes, cells, DNA and organelles establish a series of nanoparticle/biological interfaces that depend on colloidal forces as well as dynamic biophysicochemical interactions. These interactions lead to the formation of protein coronas, particle wrapping, intracellular uptake and biocatalytic processes that could have biocompatible or bioadverse outcomes. For their part, the biomolecules may induce phase transformations, free energy releases, restructuring and dissolution at the nanomaterial surface. Probing these various interfaces allows the development of predictive relationships between structure and activity that are determined by nanomaterial properties such as size, shape, surface chemistry, roughness and surface coatings. This knowledge is important from the perspective of safe use of nanomaterials.