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Journal ArticleDOI

Review of Battery Charger Topologies, Charging Power Levels, and Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

01 Jan 2013-IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics (IEEE)-Vol. 28, Iss: 5, pp 2151-2169

Abstract: This paper reviews the current status and implementation of battery chargers, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles and hybrids. Charger systems are categorized into off-board and on-board types with unidirectional or bidirectional power flow. Unidirectional charging limits hardware requirements and simplifies interconnection issues. Bidirectional charging supports battery energy injection back to the grid. Typical on-board chargers restrict power because of weight, space, and cost constraints. They can be integrated with the electric drive to avoid these problems. The availability of charging infrastructure reduces on-board energy storage requirements and costs. On-board charger systems can be conductive or inductive. An off-board charger can be designed for high charging rates and is less constrained by size and weight. Level 1 (convenience), Level 2 (primary), and Level 3 (fast) power levels are discussed. Future aspects such as roadbed charging are presented. Various power level chargers and infrastructure configurations are presented, compared, and evaluated based on amount of power, charging time and location, cost, equipment, and other factors.
Topics: Trickle charging (69%), Battery charger (67%), Battery (electricity) (52%), Energy storage (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Francis Mwasilu1, Jackson John Justo1, Eun-Kyung Kim1, Ton Duc Do1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive review and assessment of the latest research and advancement of electric vehicles (EVs) interaction with smart grid portraying the future electric power system model. The concept goal of the smart grid along with the future deployment of the EVs puts forward various challenges in terms of electric grid infrastructure, communication and control. Following an intensive review on advanced smart metering and communication infrastructures, the strategy for integrating the EVs into the electric grid is presented. Various EV smart charging technologies are also extensively examined with the perspective of their potential, impacts and limitations under the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) phenomenon. Moreover, the high penetration of renewable energy sources (wind and photovoltaic solar) is soaring up into the power system. However, their intermittent power output poses different challenges on the planning, operation and control of the power system networks. On the other hand, the deployment of EVs in the energy market can compensate for the fluctuations of the electric grid. In this context, a literature review on the integration of the renewable energy and the latest feasible solution using EVs with the insight of the promising research gap to be covered up are investigated. Furthermore, the feasibility of the smart V2G system is thoroughly discussed. In this paper, the EVs interactions with the smart grid as the future energy system model are extensively discussed and research gap is revealed for the possible solutions.

627 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Wei Zhang1, Chunting Chris Mi2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This paper provides a comprehensive review of existing compensation topologies for the loosely coupled transformer and discusses the compensation requirements for achieving the maximum efficiency according to different WPT application areas.
Abstract: Wireless power transfer (WPT) is an emerging technology that can realize electric power transmission over certain distances without physical contact, offering significant benefits to modern automation systems, medical applications, consumer electronics, etc. This paper provides a comprehensive review of existing compensation topologies for the loosely coupled transformer. Compensation topologies are reviewed and evaluated based on their basic and advanced functions. Individual passive resonant networks used to achieve constant (load-independent) voltage or current output are analyzed and summarized. Popular WPT compensation topologies are given as application examples, which can be regarded as the combination of multiple blocks of resonant networks. Analyses of the input zero phase angle and soft switching are conducted as well. This paper also discusses the compensation requirements for achieving the maximum efficiency according to different WPT application areas.

419 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents methods to estimate average daily origin–destination trips from triangulated mobile phone records of millions of anonymized users, which form the basis for much of the analysis and modeling that inform transportation planning and investments.
Abstract: In this work, we present methods to estimate average daily origin–destination trips from triangulated mobile phone records of millions of anonymized users. These records are first converted into clustered locations at which users engage in activities for an observed duration. These locations are inferred to be home, work, or other depending on observation frequency, day of week, and time of day, and represent a user’s origins and destinations. Since the arrival time and duration at these locations reflect the observed (based on phone usage) rather than true arrival time and duration of a user, we probabilistically infer departure time using survey data on trips in major US cities. Trips are then constructed for each user between two consecutive observations in a day. These trips are multiplied by expansion factors based on the population of a user’s home Census Tract and divided by the number of days on which we observed the user, distilling average daily trips. Aggregating individuals’ daily trips by Census Tract pair, hour of the day, and trip purpose results in trip matrices that form the basis for much of the analysis and modeling that inform transportation planning and investments. The applicability of the proposed methodology is supported by validation against the temporal and spatial distributions of trips reported in local and national surveys.

397 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A proper comparison is established among the most important non-isolated boost-based dc-dc converters regarding the voltage stress across the semiconductor elements, number of components and static gain.
Abstract: The major consideration in dc-dc conversion is often associated with high efficiency, reduced stresses involving semiconductors, low cost, simplicity and robustness of the involved topologies. In the last few years, high-step-up non-isolated dc-dc converters have become quite popular because of its wide applicability, especially considering that dc-ac converters must be typically supplied with high dc voltages. The conventional non-isolated boost converter is the most popular topology for this purpose, although the conversion efficiency is limited at high duty cycle values. In order to overcome such limitation and improve the conversion ratio, derived topologies can be found in numerous publications as possible solutions for the aforementioned applications. Within this context, this work intends to classify and review some of the most important non-isolated boost-based dc-dc converters. While many structures exist, they can be basically classified as converters with and without wide conversion ratio. Some of the main advantages and drawbacks regarding the existing approaches are also discussed. Finally, a proper comparison is established among the most significant converters regarding the voltage stress across the semiconductor elements, number of components and static gain.

357 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Fariborz Musavi, Wilson Eberle1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this study, a comprehensive review of existing technological solutions for wireless power transfer used in electric vehicle battery chargers is given. The concept of each solution is thoroughly reviewed and the feasibility is evaluated considering the present limitations in power electronics technology, cost and consumer acceptance. In addition, the challenges and advantages of each technology are discussed. Finally, a thorough comparison is made and a proposed mixed conductive/wireless charging system solution is suggested to solve the inherent existing problems.

309 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Alternative vehicles, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, are becoming more popular The batteries of these plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are to be charged at home from a standard outlet or on a corporate car park These extra electrical loads have an impact on the distribution grid which is analyzed in terms of power losses and voltage deviations Without coordination of the charging, the vehicles are charged instantaneously when they are plugged in or after a fixed start delay This uncoordinated power consumption on a local scale can lead to grid problems Therefore, coordinated charging is proposed to minimize the power losses and to maximize the main grid load factor The optimal charging profile of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is computed by minimizing the power losses As the exact forecasting of household loads is not possible, stochastic programming is introduced Two main techniques are analyzed: quadratic and dynamic programming

2,346 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Willett Kempton1, Jasna Tomić1Institutions (1)
Abstract: As the light vehicle fleet moves to electric drive (hybrid, battery, and fuel cell vehicles), an opportunity opens for “vehicle-to-grid” (V2G) power. This article defines the three vehicle types that can produce V2G power, and the power markets they can sell into. V2G only makes sense if the vehicle and power market are matched. For example, V2G appears to be unsuitable for baseload power—the constant round-theclock electricity supply—because baseload power can be provided more cheaply by large generators, as it is today. Rather, V2G’s greatest near-term promise is for quick-response, high-value electric services. These quick-response electric services are purchased to balance constant fluctuations in load and to adapt to unexpected equipment failures; they account for 5–10% of electric cost—$ 12 billion per year in the US. This article develops equations to calculate the capacity for grid power from three types of electric drive vehicles. These equations are applied to evaluate revenue and costs for these vehicles to supply electricity to three electric markets (peak power, spinning reserves, and regulation). The results suggest that the engineering rationale and economic motivation for V2G power are compelling. The societal advantages of developing V2G include an additional revenue stream for cleaner vehicles, increased stability and reliability of the electric grid, lower electric system costs, and eventually, inexpensive storage and backup for renewable electricity. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1,982 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...[173]–[175]....

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Book
26 Feb 2018-
Abstract: "This book is an introduction to automotive technology, with specic reference to battery electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. It could serve electrical engineers who need to know more about automobiles or automotive engineers who need to know about electrical propulsion systems. For example, this reviewer, who is a specialist in electric machinery, could use this book to better understand the automobiles for which the reviewer is designing electric drive motors. An automotive engineer, on the other hand, might use it to better understand the nature of motors and electric storage systems for application in automobiles, trucks or motorcycles. The early chapters of the book are accessible to technically literate people who need to know something about cars. While the rst chapter is historical in nature, the second chapter is a good introduction to automobiles, including dynamics of propulsion and braking. The third chapter discusses, in some detail, spark ignition and compression ignition (Diesel) engines. The fourth chapter discusses the nature of transmission systems.” —James Kirtley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA “The third edition covers extensive topics in modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles, in which the profound knowledge, mathematical modeling, simulations, and control are clearly presented. Featured with design of various vehicle drivetrains, as well as a multi-objective optimization software, it is an estimable work to meet the needs of automotive industry.” —Haiyan Henry Zhang, Purdue University, USA “The extensive combined experience of the authors have produced an extensive volume covering a broad range but detailed topics on the principles, design and architectures of Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles in a well-structured, clear and concise manner. The volume offers a complete overview of technologies, their selection, integration & control, as well as an interesting Technical Overview of the Toyota Prius. The technical chapters are complemented with example problems and user guides to assist the reader in practical calculations through the use of common scientic computing packages. It will be of interest mainly to research postgraduates working in this eld as well as established academic researchers, industrial R&D engineers and allied professionals.” —Christopher Donaghy-Sparg, Durham University, United Kingdom The book deals with the fundamentals, theoretical bases, and design methodologies of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). The design methodology is described in mathematical terms, step-by-step, and the topics are approached from the overall drive train system, not just individual components. Furthermore, in explaining the design methodology of each drive train, design examples are presented with simulation results. All the chapters have been updated, and two new chapters on Mild Hybrids and Optimal Sizing and Dimensioning and Control are also included • Chapters updated throughout the text. • New homework problems, solutions, and examples. • Includes two new chapters. • Features accompanying MATLABTM software.

1,977 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bhim Singh1, Brij N. Singh2, Ambrish Chandra, Kamal Al-Haddad  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This paper presents an exhaustive review of three-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters configurations, control strategies, selection of components, comparative factors, recent trends, their suitability, and selection for specific applications.
Abstract: Solid-state switch-mode rectification converters have reached a matured level for improving power quality in terms of power-factor correction (PFC), reduced total harmonic distortion at input AC mains and precisely regulated DC output in buck, boost, buck-boost and multilevel modes with unidirectional and bidirectional power flow. This paper deals with a comprehensive review of improved power quality converters (IPQCs) configurations, control approaches, design features, selection of components, other related considerations, and their suitability and selection for specific applications. It is targeted to provide a wide spectrum on the status of IPQC technology to researchers, designers and application engineers working on switched-mode AC-DC converters. A classified list of more than 450 research publications on the state of art of IPQC is also given for a quick reference.

1,620 citations


"Review of Battery Charger Topologie..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Various topologies and schemes have been reported for both single-phase and three-phase chargers [15], [48]....

    [...]

  • ...Today, these converters are implemented in a single stage to limit cost, weight, volume, and losses [15]....

    [...]

  • ...Three-level diode-clamped bidirectional charger circuit, as in [15]...

    [...]

  • ...tional charging is a logical first step because it limits hardware requirements, simplifies interconnection issues, and tends to reduce battery degradation [15], [16]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of the back-to-back diode-clamped converter over two-level pulsewidth-modulation-based drives.
Abstract: This paper presents transformerless multilevel power converters as an application for high-power and/or high-voltage electric motor drives. Multilevel converters: (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage; and (3) are suitable for large voltampere-rated motor drives and high voltages. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all-electric drives because it uses several levels of DC voltage sources, which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back-to-back diode-clamped converter is ideal where a source of AC voltage is available, such as in a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two converters over two-level pulsewidth-modulation-based drives.

1,327 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20225
2021239
2020274
2019268
2018261
2017203