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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1725378

Long-lived mice with reduced growth hormone signaling have a constitutive upregulation of hepatic chaperone-mediated autophagy.

04 Mar 2021-Autophagy (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 17, Iss: 3, pp 612-625
Abstract: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is the most selective form of lysosomal proteolysis. CMA modulates proteomic organization through selective protein degradation, with targets including metabolic enzymes, cell growth regulators, and neurodegeneration-related proteins. CMA activity is low in ad libitum-fed rodents but is increased by prolonged fasting. AKT negatively regulates CMA at the lysosomal membrane by phosphorylating and inhibiting the CMA regulator GFAP. We have previously reported that long-lived Pou1f1/Pit1 mutant (Snell) mice and ghr (growth hormone receptor) knockout mice (ghr KO) have lower AKT activity when fed compared to littermate controls, suggesting the hypothesis that these mice have increased baseline CMA activity. Here, we report that liver lysosomes from fed Snell dwarf mice and ghr KO mice have decreased GFAP phosphorylation and increased CMA substrate uptake activity. Liver lysosomes isolated from fed Snell dwarf mice and ghr KO mice injected with the protease inhibitor leupeptin had increased accumulation of endogenous CMA substrates, compared to littermate controls, suggesting an increase in CMA in vivo. Mice with liver-specific ablation of GH (growth hormone) signaling did not have increased liver CMA, suggesting that a signaling effect resulting from a loss of growth hormone in another tissue causes enhanced CMA in Snell dwarf and ghr KO mice. Finally, we find Snell dwarf mice have decreased protein levels (in liver and kidney) of CIP2A, a well-characterized CMA target protein, without an associated change in Cip2a mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that CMA is enhanced downstream of an endocrine change resulting from whole-body ablation of GH signaling.Abbreviations: CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; GH: growth hormone; ghr KO: growth hormone receptor knockout; LAMP2A: splice variant 1 of Lamp2 transcript; LC3-I: non-lipidated MAP1LC3; LC3-II: lipidated MAP1LC3; Li-ghr KO: liver-specific ghr knockout; MA: macroautophagy; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; MTORC2: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 2; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline.

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Topics: Growth hormone receptor (58%), Mechanistic target of rapamycin (53%), Protein degradation (53%) ... show more
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10 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105466
Ning Li1, Wenyang Jiang1, Wei Wang1, Rui Xiong1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death (RCD) driven by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, which is morphologically and mechanistically distinct from other forms of RCD including apoptosis, autophagic cell death, pyroptosis and necroptosis Recently, ferroptosis has been found to participate in the development of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyopathy, heart failure, aortic dissection and stroke Cardiovascular homeostasis is indulged in delicate equilibrium of assorted cell types composing the heart or vessels, and how ferroptosis contributes to the pathophysiological responses in CVD progression is unclear Herein, we reviewed recent discoveries on the basis of ferroptosis and its involvement in CVD pathogenesis, together with related therapeutic potentials, aiming to provide insights on fundamental mechanisms of ferroptosis and implications in CVDs and associated disorders

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Topics: Necroptosis (50%)

18 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41580-021-00411-4
Abstract: Dietary restriction with adequate nutrition is the gold standard for delaying ageing and extending healthspan and lifespan in diverse species, including rodents and non-human primates. In this Review, we discuss the effects of dietary restriction in these mammalian model organisms and discuss accumulating data that suggest that dietary restriction results in many of the same physiological, metabolic and molecular changes responsible for the prevention of multiple ageing-associated diseases in humans. We further discuss how different forms of fasting, protein restriction and specific reductions in the levels of essential amino acids such as methionine and the branched-chain amino acids selectively impact the activity of AKT, FOXO, mTOR, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which are key components of some of the most important nutrient-sensing geroprotective signalling pathways that promote healthy longevity.

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Topics: PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (50%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41388-020-01491-W
Jie Xu1, Jean-Philippe Brosseau2, Hubing Shi3Institutions (3)
06 Oct 2020-Oncogene
Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy using immune-checkpoint blockade has displayed promising clinical effects, but prevalent antibody-based inhibitors face multiple challenges such as low response rate, acquired resistance, and adverse effects. The intracellular expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in recycling endosomes and their active trafficking to membrane highlight the importance of depleting rather than interfering with checkpoint proteins. Preclinical investigations on the therapeutic effects of lead compounds that function by degrading immune checkpoint ligands and receptors have reported highly promising results. By harnessing the degradation capabilities of the lysosome, proteasome and autophagosomes, different small molecules and peptides potently induced degradation of checkpoint proteins and enhanced anti-tumor immunity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments support the therapeutic efficacy of these molecules. Thus, targeted degradation through endo-lysosomal, autophagic, proteasomal, or endoplasmic reticulum-related pathways may provide promising strategies for tackling the challenges in cancer immunotherapy.

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Topics: Immune checkpoint (60%), Cancer immunotherapy (53%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.202001031
Abstract: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is the most selective form of lysosomal proteolysis, where individual peptides, recognized by a consensus motif, are translocated directly across the lysosomal membrane. CMA regulates the abundance of many disease-related proteins, with causative roles in neoplasia, neurodegeneration, hepatosteatosis, and other pathologies relevant to human health and aging. At the lysosomal membrane, CMA is inhibited by Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the CMA regulator GFAP. The INS-PI3K-PDPK1 pathway regulates Akt, but its role in CMA is unclear. Here, we report that inhibition of class I PI3K or PDPK1 activates CMA. In contrast, selective inhibition of class III PI3Ks does not activate CMA. Isolated liver lysosomes from mice treated with either of two orally bioavailable class I PI3K inhibitors, pictilisib or buparlisib, display elevated CMA activity, and decreased phosphorylation of lysosomal GFAP, with no change in macroautophagy. The findings of this study represent an important first step in repurposing class I PI3K inhibitors to modulate CMA in vivo.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNAGI.2020.630743
Abstract: Brain aging is characterized by a time-dependent decline of tissue integrity and function, and it is a major risk for neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancer. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective form of autophagy specialized in protein degradation, which is based on the individual translocation of a cargo protein through the lysosomal membrane. Regulation of processes such as proteostasis, cellular energetics, or immune system activity has been associated with CMA, indicating its pivotal role in tissue homeostasis. Since first studies associating Parkinson's disease (PD) to CMA dysfunction, increasing evidence points out that CMA is altered in both physiological and pathological brain aging. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the impact of CMA during aging in brain physiopathology, highlighting the role of CMA in neurodegenerative diseases and glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive brain tumor in adults.

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Topics: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (56%), Proteostasis (55%), Tissue homeostasis (54%) ... show more

3 Citations


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71 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/CR.2013.168
01 Jan 2014-Cell Research
Abstract: Autophagy is a primarily degradative pathway that takes place in all eukaryotic cells. It is used for recycling cytoplasm to generate macromolecular building blocks and energy under stress conditions, to remove superfluous and damaged organelles to adapt to changing nutrient conditions and to maintain cellular homeostasis. In addition, autophagy plays a critical role in cytoprotection by preventing the accumulation of toxic proteins and through its action in various aspects of immunity including the elimination of invasive microbes and its participation in antigen presentation. The most prevalent form of autophagy is macroautophagy, and during this process, the cell forms a double-membrane sequestering compartment termed the phagophore, which matures into an autophagosome. Following delivery to the vacuole or lysosome, the cargo is degraded and the resulting macromolecules are released back into the cytosol for reuse. The past two decades have resulted in a tremendous increase with regard to the molecular studies of autophagy being carried out in yeast and other eukaryotes. Part of the surge in interest in this topic is due to the connection of autophagy with a wide range of human pathophysiologies including cancer, myopathies, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. However, there are still many aspects of autophagy that remain unclear, including the process of phagophore formation, the regulatory mechanisms that control its induction and the function of most of the autophagy-related proteins. In this review, we focus on macroautophagy, briefly describing the discovery of this process in mammalian cells, discussing the current views concerning the donor membrane that forms the phagophore, and characterizing the autophagy machinery including the available structural information.

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Topics: Autophagy database (67%), Autophagy (57%), Autophagosome (55%) ... show more

1,226 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1087782
05 Sep 2003-Science
Abstract: Both dauer formation (a stage of developmental arrest) and adult life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans are negatively regulated by insulin-like signaling, but little is known about cellular pathways that mediate these processes. Autophagy, through the sequestration and delivery of cargo to the lysosomes, is the major route for degrading long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. Using nematodes with a loss-of-function mutation in the insulin-like signaling pathway, we show that bec-1, the C. elegans ortholog of the yeast and mammalian autophagy gene APG6/VPS30/beclin1, is essential for normal dauer morphogenesis and life-span extension. Dauer formation is associated with increased autophagy and also requires C. elegans orthologs of the yeast autophagy genes APG1, APG7, APG8, and AUT10. Thus, autophagy is a cellular pathway essential for dauer development and life-span extension in C. elegans.

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Topics: Autophagy database (61%), Caenorhabditis elegans (57%), Autophagy (56%)

1,177 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.31.2.319
Robert E. Smith1, Marilyn G. Farquhar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The nature and content of lytic bodies and the localization of acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity were investigated in mammotrophic hormone-producing cells (MT) from rat anterior pituitary glands. MT were examined from lactating rats in which secretion of MTH(1) was high and from postlactating rats in which MTH secretion was suppressed by removing the suckling young. MT from lactating animals contained abundant stacks of rough-surfaced ER, a large Golgi complex with many forming secretory granules, and a few lytic bodies, primarily multivesicular bodies and dense bodies. MT from postlactating animals, sacrificed at selected intervals up to 96 hr after separation from their suckling young, showed (a) progressive involution of the protein synthetic apparatus with sequestration of ER and ribosomes in autophagic vacuoles, and (b) incorporation of secretory granules into multivesicular and dense bodies. The content of mature granules typically was incorporated into dense bodies whereas that of immature granules found its way preferentially into multivesicular bodies. The secretory granules and cytoplasmic constituents segregated within lytic bodies were progressively degraded over a period of 24 to 72 hr to yield a common residual body, the vacuolated dense body. In MT from lactating animals, AcPase reaction product was found in lytic bodies, and in several other sites not usually considered to be lysosomal in nature, i.e., inner Golgi cisterna and associated vesicles, and around most of the immature, and some of the mature secretory granules. In MT from postlactating animals, AcPase was concentrated in lytic bodies; reaction product and incorporated secretory granules were frequently recognizable within the same multivesicular or dense body which could therefore be identified as "autolysosomes" connected with the digestion of endogenous materials. Several possible explanations for the occurrence of AcPase in nonlysosomal sites are discussed. From the findings it is concluded that, in secretory cells, lysosomes function in the regulation of the secretory process by providing a mechanism which takes care of overproduction of secretory products.

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Topics: Residual body (57%), Secretory Vesicle (53%), Golgi apparatus (50%)

960 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.2799391
20 Oct 1989-Science
Abstract: A 73-kilodalton (kD) intracellular protein was found to bind to peptide regions that target intracellular proteins for lysosomal degradation in response to serum withdrawal. This protein cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised to a member of the 70-kD heat shock protein (hsp70) family, and sequences of two internal peptides of the 73-kD protein confirm that it is a member of this family. In response to serum withdrawal, the intracellular concentration of the 73-kD protein increased severalfold. In the presence of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and MgCl2, the 73-kD protein enhanced protein degradation in two different cell-free assays for lysosomal proteolysis.

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Topics: Protein degradation (68%), HSPA4 (65%), Lysosomal lumen (62%) ... show more

830 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.94.24.13215
Yihua Zhou1, Bixiong C. Xu, Hiralal G. Maheshwari, Li He  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Laron syndrome [growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome] is a hereditary dwarfism resulting from defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene. GHR deficiency has not been reported in mammals other than humans. Many aspects of GHR dysfunction remain unknown because of ethical and practical limitations in studying humans. To create a mammalian model for this disease, we generated mice bearing a disrupted GHR/binding protein (GHR/BP) gene through a homologous gene targeting approach. Homozygous GHR/BP knockout mice showed severe postnatal growth retardation, proportionate dwarfism, absence of the GHR and GH binding protein, greatly decreased serum insulin-like growth factor I and elevated serum GH concentrations. These characteristics represent the phenotype typical of individuals with Laron syndrome. Animals heterozygous for the GHR/BP defect show only minimal growth impairment but have an intermediate biochemical phenotype, with decreased GHR and GH binding protein expression and slightly diminished insulin-like growth factor I levels. These findings indicate that the GHR/BP-deficient mouse (Laron mouse) is a suitable model for human Laron syndrome that will prove useful for the elucidation of many aspects of GHR/BP function that cannot be obtained in humans.

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Topics: Growth hormone receptor (69%), Laron syndrome (65%), Growth hormone receptor binding (56%) ... show more

737 Citations


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20217
20203