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Neural Architecture Search with Reinforcement Learning

Barret Zoph1, Quoc V. Le1
05 Nov 2016-arXiv: Learning-

TL;DR: This paper uses a recurrent network to generate the model descriptions of neural networks and trains this RNN with reinforcement learning to maximize the expected accuracy of the generated architectures on a validation set.

AbstractNeural networks are powerful and flexible models that work well for many difficult learning tasks in image, speech and natural language understanding. Despite their success, neural networks are still hard to design. In this paper, we use a recurrent network to generate the model descriptions of neural networks and train this RNN with reinforcement learning to maximize the expected accuracy of the generated architectures on a validation set. On the CIFAR-10 dataset, our method, starting from scratch, can design a novel network architecture that rivals the best human-invented architecture in terms of test set accuracy. Our CIFAR-10 model achieves a test error rate of 3.65, which is 0.09 percent better and 1.05x faster than the previous state-of-the-art model that used a similar architectural scheme. On the Penn Treebank dataset, our model can compose a novel recurrent cell that outperforms the widely-used LSTM cell, and other state-of-the-art baselines. Our cell achieves a test set perplexity of 62.4 on the Penn Treebank, which is 3.6 perplexity better than the previous state-of-the-art model. The cell can also be transferred to the character language modeling task on PTB and achieves a state-of-the-art perplexity of 1.214.

Topics: Perplexity (60%), Artificial neural network (57%), Language model (54%), Test set (54%), Reinforcement learning (53%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey will present existing methods for Data Augmentation, promising developments, and meta-level decisions for implementing DataAugmentation, a data-space solution to the problem of limited data.
Abstract: Deep convolutional neural networks have performed remarkably well on many Computer Vision tasks. However, these networks are heavily reliant on big data to avoid overfitting. Overfitting refers to the phenomenon when a network learns a function with very high variance such as to perfectly model the training data. Unfortunately, many application domains do not have access to big data, such as medical image analysis. This survey focuses on Data Augmentation, a data-space solution to the problem of limited data. Data Augmentation encompasses a suite of techniques that enhance the size and quality of training datasets such that better Deep Learning models can be built using them. The image augmentation algorithms discussed in this survey include geometric transformations, color space augmentations, kernel filters, mixing images, random erasing, feature space augmentation, adversarial training, generative adversarial networks, neural style transfer, and meta-learning. The application of augmentation methods based on GANs are heavily covered in this survey. In addition to augmentation techniques, this paper will briefly discuss other characteristics of Data Augmentation such as test-time augmentation, resolution impact, final dataset size, and curriculum learning. This survey will present existing methods for Data Augmentation, promising developments, and meta-level decisions for implementing Data Augmentation. Readers will understand how Data Augmentation can improve the performance of their models and expand limited datasets to take advantage of the capabilities of big data.

1,965 citations


Cites background from "Neural Architecture Search with Rei..."

  • ...NAS takes a novel approach to meta-learning architectures by using a recurrent network trained with Reinforcement Learning to design architectures that result in the best accuracy....

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  • ...28 Concept behind Neural Architecture Search [33]...

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  • ...This approach has become very popular since the publication of NAS [33] from Zoph and Le....

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  • ...Since then, GANs were introduced in 2014 [31], Neural Style Transfer [32] in 2015, and Neural Architecture Search (NAS) [33] in 2017....

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  • ...Applying metalearning concepts from NAS to Data Augmentation has become increasingly popular with works such as Neural Augmentation [36], Smart Augmentation [37], and AutoAugment [38] published in 2017, 2017, and 2018, respectively....

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Book ChapterDOI
08 Sep 2018
Abstract: Currently, the neural network architecture design is mostly guided by the indirect metric of computation complexity, i.e., FLOPs. However, the direct metric, e.g., speed, also depends on the other factors such as memory access cost and platform characterics. Thus, this work proposes to evaluate the direct metric on the target platform, beyond only considering FLOPs. Based on a series of controlled experiments, this work derives several practical guidelines for efficient network design. Accordingly, a new architecture is presented, called ShuffleNet V2. Comprehensive ablation experiments verify that our model is the state-of-the-art in terms of speed and accuracy tradeoff.

1,613 citations


Book ChapterDOI
08 Sep 2018
Abstract: We propose a new method for learning the structure of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that is more efficient than recent state-of-the-art methods based on reinforcement learning and evolutionary algorithms. Our approach uses a sequential model-based optimization (SMBO) strategy, in which we search for structures in order of increasing complexity, while simultaneously learning a surrogate model to guide the search through structure space. Direct comparison under the same search space shows that our method is up to 5 times more efficient than the RL method of Zoph et al. (2018) in terms of number of models evaluated, and 8 times faster in terms of total compute. The structures we discover in this way achieve state of the art classification accuracies on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet.

1,359 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Jan 2019
TL;DR: This work proposes a novel neural architecture Transformer-XL that enables learning dependency beyond a fixed length without disrupting temporal coherence, which consists of a segment-level recurrence mechanism and a novel positional encoding scheme.
Abstract: Transformers have a potential of learning longer-term dependency, but are limited by a fixed-length context in the setting of language modeling. We propose a novel neural architecture Transformer-XL that enables learning dependency beyond a fixed length without disrupting temporal coherence. It consists of a segment-level recurrence mechanism and a novel positional encoding scheme. Our method not only enables capturing longer-term dependency, but also resolves the context fragmentation problem. As a result, Transformer-XL learns dependency that is 80% longer than RNNs and 450% longer than vanilla Transformers, achieves better performance on both short and long sequences, and is up to 1,800+ times faster than vanilla Transformers during evaluation. Notably, we improve the state-of-the-art results of bpc/perplexity to 0.99 on enwiki8, 1.08 on text8, 18.3 on WikiText-103, 21.8 on One Billion Word, and 54.5 on Penn Treebank (without finetuning). When trained only on WikiText-103, Transformer-XL manages to generate reasonably coherent, novel text articles with thousands of tokens. Our code, pretrained models, and hyperparameters are available in both Tensorflow and PyTorch.

1,085 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey will cover central algorithms in deep RL, including the deep Q-network (DQN), trust region policy optimization (TRPO), and asynchronous advantage actor critic, and highlight the unique advantages of deep neural networks, focusing on visual understanding via RL.
Abstract: Deep reinforcement learning is poised to revolutionise the field of AI and represents a step towards building autonomous systems with a higher level understanding of the visual world. Currently, deep learning is enabling reinforcement learning to scale to problems that were previously intractable, such as learning to play video games directly from pixels. Deep reinforcement learning algorithms are also applied to robotics, allowing control policies for robots to be learned directly from camera inputs in the real world. In this survey, we begin with an introduction to the general field of reinforcement learning, then progress to the main streams of value-based and policy-based methods. Our survey will cover central algorithms in deep reinforcement learning, including the deep $Q$-network, trust region policy optimisation, and asynchronous advantage actor-critic. In parallel, we highlight the unique advantages of deep neural networks, focusing on visual understanding via reinforcement learning. To conclude, we describe several current areas of research within the field.

993 citations


References
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27 Jun 2016
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TL;DR: This work introduces Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments, and provides a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework.
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TL;DR: This work investigates the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting using an architecture with very small convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers.
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38,283 citations


"Neural Architecture Search with Rei..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Along with this success is a paradigm shift from feature designing to architecture designing, i.e., from SIFT (Lowe, 1999), and HOG (Dalal & Triggs, 2005), to AlexNet (Krizhevsky et al., 2012), VGGNet (Simonyan & Zisserman, 2014), GoogleNet (Szegedy et al., 2015), and ResNet (He et al., 2016a)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1998
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

34,930 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2005
TL;DR: It is shown experimentally that grids of histograms of oriented gradient (HOG) descriptors significantly outperform existing feature sets for human detection, and the influence of each stage of the computation on performance is studied.
Abstract: We study the question of feature sets for robust visual object recognition; adopting linear SVM based human detection as a test case. After reviewing existing edge and gradient based descriptors, we show experimentally that grids of histograms of oriented gradient (HOG) descriptors significantly outperform existing feature sets for human detection. We study the influence of each stage of the computation on performance, concluding that fine-scale gradients, fine orientation binning, relatively coarse spatial binning, and high-quality local contrast normalization in overlapping descriptor blocks are all important for good results. The new approach gives near-perfect separation on the original MIT pedestrian database, so we introduce a more challenging dataset containing over 1800 annotated human images with a large range of pose variations and backgrounds.

28,803 citations


"Neural Architecture Search with Rei..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Along with this success is a paradigm shift from feature designing to architecture designing, i.e., from SIFT (Lowe, 1999), and HOG (Dalal & Triggs, 2005), to AlexNet (Krizhevsky et al., 2012), VGGNet (Simonyan & Zisserman, 2014), GoogleNet (Szegedy et al., 2015), and ResNet (He et al., 2016a)....

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