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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELREP.2021.108797

Topological stress is responsible for the detrimental outcomes of head-on replication-transcription conflicts.

02 Mar 2021-Cell Reports (Cell Press)-Vol. 34, Iss: 9, pp 108797-108797
Abstract: Conflicts between the replication and transcription machineries have profound effects on chromosome duplication, genome organization, and evolution across species. Head-on conflicts (lagging-strand genes) are significantly more detrimental than codirectional conflicts (leading-strand genes). The fundamental reason for this difference is unknown. Here, we report that topological stress significantly contributes to this difference. We find that head-on, but not codirectional, conflict resolution requires the relaxation of positive supercoils by the type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and Topo IV, at least in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, our data suggest that after positive supercoil resolution, gyrase introduces excessive negative supercoils at head-on conflict regions, driving pervasive R-loop formation. Altogether, our results reveal a fundamental mechanistic difference between the two types of encounters, addressing a long-standing question in the field of replication-transcription conflicts.

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Topics: DNA gyrase (54%), DNA supercoil (52%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10040935
17 Apr 2021-Cells
Abstract: Bacillus subtilis PcrA interacts with the RNA polymerase and might contribute to mitigate replication–transcription conflicts (RTCs). We show that PcrA depletion lethality is partially suppressed by rnhB inactivation, but cell viability is significantly reduced by rnhC or dinG inactivation. Following PcrA depletion, cells lacking RnhC or DinG are extremely sensitive to DNA damage. Chromosome segregation is not further impaired by rnhB or dinG inactivation but is blocked by rnhC or recA inactivation upon PcrA depletion. Despite our efforts, we could not construct a ΔrnhC ΔrecA strain. These observations support the idea that PcrA dismantles RTCs. Purified PcrA, which binds single-stranded (ss) DNA over RNA, is a ssDNA-dependent ATPase and preferentially unwinds DNA in a 3′→5′direction. PcrA unwinds a 3′-tailed RNA of an RNA-DNA hybrid significantly faster than that of a DNA substrate. Our results suggest that a replicative stress, caused by mis-incorporated rNMPs, indirectly increases cell viability upon PcrA depletion. We propose that PcrA, in concert with RnhC or DinG, contributes to removing spontaneous or enzyme-driven R-loops, to counteract deleterious trafficking conflicts and preserve to genomic integrity.

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Topics: PcrA (70%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.15252/EMBJ.2021108439
Verena Hurst1, Verena Hurst2, Kiran Challa2, Felix Jonas3  +10 moreInstitutions (4)
02 Nov 2021-The EMBO Journal
Abstract: Upon replication stress, budding yeast checkpoint kinase Mec1ATR triggers the downregulation of transcription, thereby reducing the level of RNA polymerase (RNAP) on chromatin to facilitate replication fork progression. Here, we identify a hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation site on Mec1, Mec1-S1991, that contributes to the eviction of RNAPII and RNAPIII during replication stress. The expression of the non-phosphorylatable mec1-S1991A mutant reduces replication fork progression genome-wide and compromises survival on hydroxyurea. This defect can be suppressed by destabilizing chromatin-bound RNAPII through a TAP fusion to its Rpb3 subunit, suggesting that lethality in mec1-S1991A mutants arises from replication-transcription conflicts. Coincident with a failure to repress gene expression on hydroxyurea in mec1-S1991A cells, highly transcribed genes such as GAL1 remain bound at nuclear pores. Consistently, we find that nuclear pore proteins and factors controlling RNAPII and RNAPIII are phosphorylated in a Mec1-dependent manner on hydroxyurea. Moreover, we show that Mec1 kinase also contributes to reduced RNAPII occupancy on chromatin during an unperturbed S phase by promoting degradation of the Rpb1 subunit.

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Topics: Chromatin (57%), Transcription (biology) (53%), RNA polymerase (52%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.10.451908
11 Jul 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: E. coli type 1A topoisomerases (topos), topo I (topA) and topo III (topB) have both relaxation and decatenation activities. B. subtilis and E. coli topA topB null cells can survive owing to DNA amplifications allowing overproduction of topo IV, the main cellular decatenase that can also relax supercoiling. We show that overproducing human topo IB, a relaxase but not a decatenase, can substitute for topo IV in allowing E. coli topA null but not topA topB null cells to survive. Deleting topB exacerbates phenotypes of topA null mutants including hypernegative supercoiling, R-loop formation, and RNase HI-sensitive replication, phenotypes that are not corrected by topo IV overproduction. These phenotypes lead to Ter DNA amplification causing a chromosome segregation defect that is corrected by topo IV overproduction. Furthermore, topA topB null mutants not overproducing topo IV acquire uvrB or uvrC mutations, revealing a nucleotide excision repair (NER)-dependent problem with replication fork progression. Thus, type IA topos maintain the stability of the genome by providing essential relaxase and decatenase activities to prevent and solve topological stress related to R-loops and NER. Moreover, excess R-loop formation is well tolerated in cells that have enough topoisomerase activity to support the subsequent replication-related topological stress.

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Topics: DNA supercoil (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-24737-X
Abstract: Identifying how R-loops are generated is crucial to know how transcription compromises genome integrity. We show by genome-wide analysis of conditional yeast mutants that the THO transcription complex, prevents R-loop formation in G1 and S-phase, whereas the Sen1 DNA-RNA helicase prevents them only in S-phase. Interestingly, damage accumulates asymmetrically downstream of the replication fork in sen1 cells but symmetrically in the hpr1 THO mutant. Our results indicate that: R-loops form co-transcriptionally independently of DNA replication; that THO is a general and cell-cycle independent safeguard against R-loops, and that Sen1, in contrast to previously believed, is an S-phase-specific R-loop resolvase. These conclusions have important implications for the mechanism of R-loop formation and the role of other factors reported to affect on R-loop homeostasis.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOM11081249
21 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Transcription-replication interactions occur when DNA replication encounters genomic regions undergoing transcription. Both replication and transcription are essential for life and use the same DNA template making conflicts unavoidable. R-loops, DNA supercoiling, DNA secondary structure, and chromatin-binding proteins are all potential obstacles for processive replication or transcription and pose an even more potent threat to genome integrity when these processes co-occur. It is critical to maintaining high fidelity and processivity of transcription and replication while navigating through a complex chromatin environment, highlighting the importance of defining cellular pathways regulating transcription-replication interaction formation, evasion, and resolution. Here we discuss how transcription influences replication fork stability, and the safeguards that have evolved to navigate transcription-replication interactions and maintain genome integrity in mammalian cells.

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Topics: DNA replication (62%), DNA supercoil (59%), Chromatin (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


References
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78 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTP352
Heng Li1, Bob Handsaker2, Alec Wysoker2, T. J. Fennell2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Aug 2009-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: [email protected]

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Topics: Variant Call Format (62%), Stockholm format (61%), FASTQ format (56%) ... read more

35,747 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.1923
01 Apr 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: As the rate of sequencing increases, greater throughput is demanded from read aligners. The full-text minute index is often used to make alignment very fast and memory-efficient, but the approach is ill-suited to finding longer, gapped alignments. Bowtie 2 combines the strengths of the full-text minute index with the flexibility and speed of hardware-accelerated dynamic programming algorithms to achieve a combination of high speed, sensitivity and accuracy.

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27,973 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTU170
Anthony Bolger1, Marc Lohse1, Bjoern Usadel1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 2014-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: Although many next-generation sequencing (NGS) read preprocessing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools that met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient preprocessing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. Results: The value of NGS read preprocessing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output that is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Availability and implementation: Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available at http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic Contact: ed.nehcaa-htwr.1oib@ledasu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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26,464 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NBT.1754
Abstract: Rapid improvements in sequencing and array-based platforms are resulting in a flood of diverse genome-wide data, including data from exome and whole-genome sequencing, epigenetic surveys, expression profiling of coding and noncoding RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number profiling, and functional assays. Analysis of these large, diverse data sets holds the promise of a more comprehensive understanding of the genome and its relation to human disease. Experienced and knowledgeable human review is an essential component of this process, complementing computational approaches. This calls for efficient and intuitive visualization tools able to scale to very large data sets and to flexibly integrate multiple data types, including clinical data. However, the sheer volume and scope of data pose a significant challenge to the development of such tools.

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8,527 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2010.05.004
28 May 2010-Molecular Cell
Abstract: Genome-scale studies have revealed extensive, cell type-specific colocalization of transcription factors, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate in macrophages and B cells that collaborative interactions of the common factor PU.1 with small sets of macrophage- or B cell lineage-determining transcription factors establish cell-specific binding sites that are associated with the majority of promoter-distal H3K4me1-marked genomic regions. PU.1 binding initiates nucleosome remodeling, followed by H3K4 monomethylation at large numbers of genomic regions associated with both broadly and specifically expressed genes. These locations serve as beacons for additional factors, exemplified by liver X receptors, which drive both cell-specific gene expression and signal-dependent responses. Together with analyses of transcription factor binding and H3K4me1 patterns in other cell types, these studies suggest that simple combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors can specify the genomic sites ultimately responsible for both cell identity and cell type-specific responses to diverse signaling inputs.

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Topics: Pioneer factor (61%), General transcription factor (61%), Super-enhancer (61%) ... read more

7,287 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20217