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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-13208-X

Air pollution exposure-the (in)visible risk factor for respiratory diseases.

04 Mar 2021-Environmental Science and Pollution Research (Springer Berlin Heidelberg)-Vol. 28, Iss: 16, pp 19615-19628
Abstract: There is increasing interest in understanding the role of air pollution as one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. Nine of 10 individuals breathe air with polluted compounds that have a great impact on lung tissue. The nature of the relationship is complex, and new or updated data are constantly being reported in the literature. The goal of our review was to summarize the most important air pollutants and their impact on the main respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis) to reduce both short- and the long-term exposure consequences. We considered the most important air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, ozone, particulate matter and biomass smoke, and observed their impact on pulmonary pathologies. We focused on respiratory pathologies, because air pollution potentiates the increase in respiratory diseases, and the evidence that air pollutants have a detrimental effect is growing. It is imperative to constantly improve policy initiatives on air quality in both high- and low-income countries.

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Topics: Air quality index (56%), Air pollution (53%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVRES.2021.111930
Montse Marquès1, José L. Domingo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In June 2020, we published a review focused on assessing the influence of various air pollutants on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the severity of COVID-19 in patients infected by the coronavirus. The results of most of those reviewed studies suggested that chronic exposure to certain air pollutants might lead to more severe and lethal forms of COVID-19, as well as delays/complications in the recovery of the patients. Since then, a notable number of studies on this topic have been published, including also various reviews. Given the importance of this issue, we have updated the information published since our previous review. Taking together the previous results and those of most investigations now reviewed, we have concluded that there is a significant association between chronic exposure to various outdoor air pollutants: PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2 and CO, and the incidence/risk of COVID-19 cases, as well as the severity/mortality of the disease. Unfortunately, studies on the potential influence of other important air pollutants such as VOCs, dioxins and furans, or metals, are not available in the scientific literature. In relation to the influence of outdoor air pollutants on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, although the scientific evidence is much more limited, some studies point to PM2.5 and PM10 as potential airborne transmitters of the virus. Anyhow, it is clear that environmental air pollution plays an important negative role in COVID-19, increasing its incidence and mortality.

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11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ATMOS12070898
11 Jul 2021-Atmosphere
Abstract: Since the industrial revolution, air pollution has become a major problem causing several health problems involving the airways as well as the cardiovascular, reproductive, or neurological system. According to the WHO, about 3.6 million deaths every year are related to inhalation of polluted air, specifically due to pulmonary diseases. Polluted air first encounters the airways, which are a major human defense mechanism to reduce the risk of this aggressor. Air pollution consists of a mixture of potentially harmful compounds such as particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals, each having its own effects on the human body. In the last decades, a lot of research investigating the underlying risks and effects of air pollution and/or its specific compounds on the airways, has been performed, involving both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The goal of this review is to give an overview of the recent data on the effects of air pollution on healthy and diseased airways or models of airway disease, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore, we focused on studies involving pollution and airway symptoms and/or damage both in mice and humans.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PHARMACEUTICS13081124
23 Jul 2021-Pharmaceutics
Abstract: Human skin is dramatically exposed to toxic pollutants such as ozone. To counteract the skin disorders induced by the air pollution, natural antioxidants such as mangiferin could be employed. A formulative study for the development of vesicular systems for mangiferin based on phosphatidylcholine and the block copolymer pluronic is described. Plurethosomes were designed for mangiferin transdermal administration and compared to ethosome and transethosome. Particularly, the effect of vesicle composition was investigated on size distribution, inner and outer morphology by photon correlation spectroscopy, small angle X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The potential of selected formulations as vehicles for mangiferin was studied, evaluating encapsulation efficiency and in vitro diffusion parameters by Franz cells. The mangiferin antioxidant capacity was verified by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Vesicle size spanned between 200 and 550 nm, being influenced by phosphatidylcholine concentration and by the presence of polysorbate or pluronic. The vesicle supramolecular structure was multilamellar in the case of ethosome or plurethosome and unilamellar in the case of transethosome. A linear diffusion of mangiferin in the case of ethosome and transethosomes and a biphasic profile in the case of plurethosomes indicated the capability of multilamellar vesicles to retain the drug more efficaciously than the unilamellar ones. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential effect of mangiferin against pollutants was evaluated on 3D human skin models exposed to O3. The protective effect exerted by plurethosomes and transethosomes suggests their possible application to enhance the cutaneous antioxidant defense status.

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Topics: Mangiferin (63%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH182312397
Abstract: Improving air quality is an urgent task for the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in China. In 2018, utilizing 365 days’ daily concentration data of six air pollutants (including PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) at 947 air quality grid monitoring points of 13 cities in the BTH region and controlling the meteorological factors, this paper takes the implementation of the Blue Sky Defense War (BSDW) policy as a quasi-natural experiment to examine the emission reduction effect of the policy in the BTH region by applying the difference-in-difference method. Results show that the policy leads to the significant reduction of the daily average concentration of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, O3 by −1.951 μg/m3, −3.872 μg/m3, −1.902 μg/m3, −7.882 μg/m3 and CO by −0.014 mg/m3, respectively. The results of the robustness test support the aforementioned conclusions. However, this paper finds that the concentration of NO2 increases significantly (1.865 μg/m3). In winter heating seasons, the concentration of SO2, CO and O3 decrease but PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 increase significantly. Besides, resource intensive cities, non-key environmental protection cities and cities in the north of the region have great potential for air pollutant emission reduction. Finally, policy suggestions are recommended; these include setting specific goals at the city level, incorporating more cities into the list of key environmental protection cities, refining the concrete indicators of domestic solid fuel, and encouraging and enforcing clean heating diffusion.

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Topics: Air quality index (53%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.117487
Abstract: Benzothiazoles (BTHs), benzotriazoles (BTRs), and benzenesulfonamides (BSAs) are chemicals used in several industrial and household applications. Despite these compounds are emerging pollutants, there is still a lack of information about their presence in outdoor air samples. In this paper, we developed a new method for the quantification of BTHs, BTRs, and BSAs in airborne particulate matter (PM10). The extraction of fourteen analytes from PM10 was accomplished by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) using an environmentally friendly mixture of water and ethanol. SPME was used to analyze the target compounds from the MAE extract by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS/MS), eliminating additional sample clean-up steps. The best working conditions for MAE and SPME were examined multivariately by experimental design techniques. The target compounds were quantified in selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode. The proposed method was carefully validated, and the achieved results were satisfactory in terms of linearity, lower limit of quantification (picograms per cubic meter), intra- and inter-day accuracy (81–118% and 82–114%, respectively), and precision (repeatability and reproducibility in the range 2.3–17% and 7.4–19%, respectively). The application in a real monitoring campaign showed that the developed protocol is a valuable and eco-friendly alternative to the methods proposed so far.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1164/RCCM.2009-040GL
Abstract: This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association. It represents the current state of knowledge regarding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and contains sections on definition and epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, natural history, staging and prognosis, treatment, and monitoring disease course. For the diagnosis and treatment sections, pragmatic GRADE evidence-based methodology was applied in a question-based format. For each diagnosis and treatment question, the committee graded the quality of the evidence available (high, moderate, low, or very low), and made a recommendation (yes or no, strong or weak). Recommendations were based on majority vote. It is emphasized that clinicians must spend adequate time with patients to discuss patients' values and preferences and decide on the appropriate course of action.

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Topics: Guideline (53%), Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (53%), Evidence-based medicine (52%) ... show more

5,047 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SREP11160
Decheng Zhou1, Shuqing Zhao2, Liangxia Zhang1, Ge Sun3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
10 Jun 2015-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (FP, including urban area) was 2.3 and 3.9 times of urban size for the day and night, respectively, with large spatiotemporal heterogeneities. We further revealed that ignoring the FP may underestimate the UHI intensity in most cases and even alter the direction of UHI estimates for few cities. Our results provide new insights to the characteristics of UHI effect and emphasize the necessity of considering city- and time-specific FP when assessing the urbanization effects on local climate.

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Topics: Urban heat island (58%), Urbanization (52%), Urban area (51%)

1,443 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1
01 Aug 2013-Lancet Oncology
Abstract: Summary Background Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. Methods This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Eff ects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffi c indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specifi c analyses and random eff ects models for meta-analyses. Findings The 312 944 cohort members contributed 4 013 131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically signifi cant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03–1·45] per 10 μg/m³). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96–1·46) per 5 μg/m³. The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10–2·08) and 1·55 (1·05–2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffi c of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99–1·21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95–1·07] per 20 μg/m³) or traffi c intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97–1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day).

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Topics: Environmental exposure (53%), Lung cancer (50%)

1,059 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60617-6
03 May 2014-The Lancet
Abstract: Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma.

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Topics: Air pollution (54%), Environmental exposure (54%), Pollutant (50%)

937 Citations


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