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Journal ArticleDOI

Chitin and chitosan: Properties and applications

01 Jul 2006-Progress in Polymer Science (PROGRESS IN POLYMER SCIENCE)-Vol. 31, Iss: 7, pp 603-632
TL;DR: Chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world as mentioned in this paper, and the main sources of chitin are two marine crustaceans, shrimp and crabs, which are used for food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
About: This article is published in Progress in Polymer Science.The article was published on 2006-07-01. It has received 6365 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Chitin nanofibril.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.

5,372 citations


Cites background from "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..."

  • ...Chitosan is a cationic polymer and has been widely used in the areas of food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, [68], due to its biocompatibility and other favorable properties....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review discusses the various attempts reported on solving this problem from the point of view of the chemistry and the structure of these polymers highlighting the drawbacks and advantages of each method and proposes that based on considerations of structure-property relations, it is possible to obtain chitin fibers with improved strength by making use of their nanostructures and/or mesophase properties of chitins.

2,278 citations


Cites background from "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..."

  • ...These aspects make evident the insolubility and intractability of chitin [6]....

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  • ...cult parameter to control as it involves a complex array of ontrolling factors [6]....

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  • ...Due to the intractability and insolubility of chitin [6,42,43], attention has been given to CSwith regard to developing derivatives withwell-defined molecular architectures having advanced properties and functions....

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  • ...Being considered to be materials of great futuristic potential with immense possibilities for structural modifications to impart desired properties and functions, research and development work on chitin and CS have reached a status of intense activities in many parts of the world [4–6]....

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  • ...It is now well established that the difficulty in solubilization of chitin results mainly from the highly extended hydrogen bonded semi-crystalline structure of chitin [6,14,42–44]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the basic building blocks are described, starting with the 20 amino acids and proceeding to polypeptides, polysaccharides, and polyprotein-saccharide.

2,074 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the use of chitosan and its grafted and crosslinked derivatives for dye removal from aqueous solutions can be found in this paper, which summarizes the key advances and results that have been obtained in their decolorizing application as biosorbents.

1,974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The preparation and properties of innovative chitosan-based biomaterials, with respect to their future applications, are highlighted, with a special focus on wound healing application.

1,694 citations


Cites background or methods from "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..."

  • ...Interestingly, the aqueous solubility of chitosan is pHdependent allowing processability under mild conditions [4], which opens prospects to a wide range of applications, particularly in the field of cosmetics [2]....

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  • ...Chitosan is a linear, semi-crystalline polysaccharide composed of (1 ? 4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-b-D-glucan (N-acetyl D-glucosamine) and (1 ? 4)-2-amino-2-deoxyb-D-glucan (D-glucosamine) units [2]....

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  • ...Considering all the aforementioned properties, it is not surprising that chitosan was, is and will be tested in many biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, notably for sutures, dental and bone implants and as artificial skin [2]....

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  • ...Different methods including pH-potentiometric titration, IR-spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, but also UV-spectroscopy, colloidal titration and enzymatic degradation are reported in the literature for the determination of chitosan deacetylation degree [17], while its molecular mass is typically deduced from viscosimetry or determined by size exclusion chromatography [2]....

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  • ...After cellulose, chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer [2] and is commonly found in invertebrates – as crustacean shells or insect cuticles – but also in some mushrooms envelopes, green algae cell walls, and yeasts [7–9]....

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References
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2,804 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The cyclic oligosaccharides, namely a-,b-,g-cyclodextrins (CD), are important because of their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic molecules in their toroidal hydrophobic cavity, whose selectivity depends on the number of glucose units (respectively 6, 7, 8 D-glucose units) [222–224]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. S. Nagar, Punjab-160 062, India, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University, Via Ranieri 67, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Natural Products,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of medicine, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
Abstract: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. A. S. Nagar,Mohali, Punjab-160 062, India, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University, Via Ranieri 67, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy,Green Biotechnology Research Group, The Special Division for Human Life Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science andTechnology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka-563-8577, Japan, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Natural Products,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem 91120, IsraelReceived March 2, 2004

2,570 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The most important fields where the specificity of chitosan must be recognized are cosmetics (especially for hair care in relation to electrostatic interactions) (Table 12) and the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications on which we focus, which probably offer the greatest promise [230,231]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade, is presented in this paper, where one hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.

1,317 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Chitin is widely used to immobilize enzymes and whole cells; enzyme immobilization has applications in the food industry, such as clarification of fruit juices and processing of milk when a- and b-amylases or invertase are grafted on chitin [81]....

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  • ...On account of its biodegradability, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, hydrophilicity, gel-forming properties and affinity for proteins, chitin has found applications in many areas other than food such as in biosensors [81]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study reports for the first time the use of polymer/polyol salt aqueous solutions as gelling systems, suggesting the discovery of a prototype for a new family of thermosetting gels highly compatible with biological compounds.

1,287 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Many chitosan hydrogels are obtained by treatment with multivalent anions: the case of glycerolphosphate is mentioned above [104], but oxalic acid has also been used [93b,184] as well as tripolyphosphate [185,186]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2001-Polymer
TL;DR: The use of infrared spectroscopy for characterization of the composition of chitin and chitosan covering the entire range of degree of acetylation (DA) and a wide variety of raw materials is examined further in this article.

1,219 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This hypothesis is reinforced by the presence of only one band in this region for Nacetyl D-glucosamine [37,42]....

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