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Journal ArticleDOI

Chitin and chitosan: Properties and applications

01 Jul 2006-Progress in Polymer Science (PROGRESS IN POLYMER SCIENCE)-Vol. 31, Iss: 7, pp 603-632

Abstract: Chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world. The main sources exploited are two marine crustaceans, shrimp and crabs. Our objective is to appraise the state of the art concerning this polysaccharide: its morphology in the native solid state, methods of identification and characterization and chemical modifications, as well as the difficulties in utilizing and processing it for selected applications. We note the important work of P. Austin, S. Tokura and S. Hirano, who have contributed to the applications development of chitin, especially in fiber form. Then, we discuss chitosan, the most important derivative of chitin, outlining the best techniques to characterize it and the main problems encountered in its utilization. Chitosan, which is soluble in acidic aqueous media, is used in many applications (food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications). We briefly describe the chemical modifications of chitosan—an area in which a variety of syntheses have been proposed tentatively, but are not yet developed on an industrial scale. This review emphasizes recent papers on the high value-added applications of these materials in medicine and cosmetics.
Topics: Chitin nanofibril (53%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Kuen Yong Lee1, David J. Mooney1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
Abstract: Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.

4,097 citations


Cites background from "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..."

  • ...Chitosan is a cationic polymer and has been widely used in the areas of food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, [68], due to its biocompatibility and other favorable properties....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Chitin and chitosan (CS) are biopolymers having immense structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions and applications especially in biomedical area. Despite its huge availability, the utilization of chitin has been restricted by its intractability and insolubility. The fact that chitin is as an effective material for sutures essentially because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity together with its antimicrobial activity and low immunogenicity, points to immense potential for future development. This review discusses the various attempts reported on solving this problem from the point of view of the chemistry and the structure of these polymers highlighting the drawbacks and advantages of each method and proposes that based on considerations of structure–property relations, it is possible to obtain chitin fibers with improved strength by making use of their nanostructures and/or mesophase properties of chitin.

2,010 citations


Cites background from "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..."

  • ...These aspects make evident the insolubility and intractability of chitin [6]....

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  • ...cult parameter to control as it involves a complex array of ontrolling factors [6]....

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  • ...Due to the intractability and insolubility of chitin [6,42,43], attention has been given to CSwith regard to developing derivatives withwell-defined molecular architectures having advanced properties and functions....

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  • ...Being considered to be materials of great futuristic potential with immense possibilities for structural modifications to impart desired properties and functions, research and development work on chitin and CS have reached a status of intense activities in many parts of the world [4–6]....

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  • ...It is now well established that the difficulty in solubilization of chitin results mainly from the highly extended hydrogen bonded semi-crystalline structure of chitin [6,14,42–44]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Most natural (or biological) materials are complex composites whose mechanical properties are often outstanding, considering the weak constituents from which they are assembled. These complex structures, which have risen from hundreds of million years of evolution, are inspiring Materials Scientists in the design of novel materials. Their defining characteristics, hierarchy, multifunctionality, and self-healing capability, are illustrated. Self-organization is also a fundamental feature of many biological materials and the manner by which the structures are assembled from the molecular level up. The basic building blocks are described, starting with the 20 amino acids and proceeding to polypeptides, polysaccharides, and polypeptides–saccharides. These, on their turn, compose the basic proteins, which are the primary constituents of ‘soft tissues’ and are also present in most biominerals. There are over 1000 proteins, and we describe only the principal ones, with emphasis on collagen, chitin, keratin, and elastin. The ‘hard’ phases are primarily strengthened by minerals, which nucleate and grow in a biomediated environment that determines the size, shape and distribution of individual crystals. The most important mineral phases are discussed: hydroxyapatite, silica, and aragonite. Using the classification of Wegst and Ashby, the principal mechanical characteristics and structures of biological ceramics, polymer composites, elastomers, and cellular materials are presented. Selected systems in each class are described with emphasis on the relationship between their structure and mechanical response. A fifth class is added to this: functional biological materials, which have a structure developed for a specific function: adhesion, optical properties, etc. An outgrowth of this effort is the search for bioinspired materials and structures. Traditional approaches focus on design methodologies of biological materials using conventional synthetic materials. The new frontiers reside in the synthesis of bioinspired materials through processes that are characteristic of biological systems; these involve nanoscale self-assembly of the components and the development of hierarchical structures. Although this approach is still in its infancy, it will eventually lead to a plethora of new materials systems as we elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of growth and the structure of biological systems.

1,827 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Grégorio Crini1, Pierre-Marie Badot1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Application of chitinous products in wastewater treatment has received considerable attention in recent years in the literature. In particular, the development of chitosan-based materials as useful adsorbent polymeric matrices is an expanding field in the area of adsorption science. This review highlights some of the notable examples in the use of chitosan and its grafted and crosslinked derivatives for dye removal from aqueous solutions. It summarizes the key advances and results that have been obtained in their decolorizing application as biosorbents. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the various adsorption mechanisms involved. The effects of parameters such as the chitosan characteristics, the process variables, the chemistry of the dye and the solution conditions used in batch studies on the biosorption capacity and kinetics are presented and discussed. The review also summarizes and attempts to compare the equilibrium and kinetic models, and the thermodynamic studies reported for biosorption onto chitosan.

1,749 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The preparation and properties of innovative chitosan-based biomaterials, with respect to their future applications, are highlighted, with a special focus on wound healing application.
Abstract: Derived from chitin, chitosan is a unique biopolymer that exhibits outstanding properties, beside biocompatibility and biodegradability. Most of these peculiar properties arise from the presence of primary amines along the chitosan backbone. As a consequence, this polysaccharide is a relevant candidate in the field of biomaterials, especially for tissue engineering. The current article highlights the preparation and properties of innovative chitosan-based biomaterials, with respect to their future applications. The use of chitosan in 3D-scaffolds – as gels and sponges – and in 2D-scaffolds – as films and fibers – is discussed, with a special focus on wound healing application.

1,350 citations


Cites background or methods from "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..."

  • ...Interestingly, the aqueous solubility of chitosan is pHdependent allowing processability under mild conditions [4], which opens prospects to a wide range of applications, particularly in the field of cosmetics [2]....

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  • ...Chitosan is a linear, semi-crystalline polysaccharide composed of (1 ? 4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-b-D-glucan (N-acetyl D-glucosamine) and (1 ? 4)-2-amino-2-deoxyb-D-glucan (D-glucosamine) units [2]....

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  • ...Considering all the aforementioned properties, it is not surprising that chitosan was, is and will be tested in many biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, notably for sutures, dental and bone implants and as artificial skin [2]....

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  • ...Different methods including pH-potentiometric titration, IR-spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, but also UV-spectroscopy, colloidal titration and enzymatic degradation are reported in the literature for the determination of chitosan deacetylation degree [17], while its molecular mass is typically deduced from viscosimetry or determined by size exclusion chromatography [2]....

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  • ...After cellulose, chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer [2] and is commonly found in invertebrates – as crustacean shells or insect cuticles – but also in some mushrooms envelopes, green algae cell walls, and yeasts [7–9]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jul 1998-Chemical Reviews

2,651 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The cyclic oligosaccharides, namely a-,b-,g-cyclodextrins (CD), are important because of their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic molecules in their toroidal hydrophobic cavity, whose selectivity depends on the number of glucose units (respectively 6, 7, 8 D-glucose units) [222–224]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
08 Dec 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. S. Nagar, Punjab-160 062, India, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University, Via Ranieri 67, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Natural Products,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of medicine, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
Abstract: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. A. S. Nagar,Mohali, Punjab-160 062, India, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University, Via Ranieri 67, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy,Green Biotechnology Research Group, The Special Division for Human Life Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science andTechnology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka-563-8577, Japan, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Natural Products,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem 91120, IsraelReceived March 2, 2004

2,363 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The most important fields where the specificity of chitosan must be recognized are cosmetics (especially for hair care in relation to electrostatic interactions) (Table 12) and the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications on which we focus, which probably offer the greatest promise [230,231]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Barbara Krajewska1Institutions (1)
Abstract: As functional materials, chitin and chitosan offer a unique set of characteristics: biocompatibility, biodegradability to harmless products, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, heavy metal ions chelation, gel forming properties and hydrophilicity, and remarkable affinity to proteins. Owing to these characteristics, chitin- and chitosan-based materials, as yet underutilized, are predicted to be widely exploited in the near future especially in environmentally benign applications in systems working in biological environments, among others as enzyme immobilization supports. This paper is a review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade. One hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.

1,236 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Chitin is widely used to immobilize enzymes and whole cells; enzyme immobilization has applications in the food industry, such as clarification of fruit juices and processing of milk when a- and b-amylases or invertase are grafted on chitin [81]....

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  • ...On account of its biodegradability, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, hydrophilicity, gel-forming properties and affinity for proteins, chitin has found applications in many areas other than food such as in biosensors [81]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abdellatif Chenite1, C Chaput1, Dadong Wang1, C Combes1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Nov 2000-Biomaterials
TL;DR: This study reports for the first time the use of polymer/polyol salt aqueous solutions as gelling systems, suggesting the discovery of a prototype for a new family of thermosetting gels highly compatible with biological compounds.
Abstract: A novel approach to provide, thermally sensitive neutral solutions based on chitosan/polyol salt combinations is described. These formulations possess a physiological pH and can be held liquid below room temperature for encapsulating living cells and therapeutic proteins; they form monolithic gels at body temperature. When injected in vivo the liquid formulations turn into gel implants in situ. This system was used successfully to deliver biologically active growth factors in vivo as well as an encapsulating matrix for living chondrocytes for tissue engineering applications. This study reports for the first time the use of polymer/polyol salt aqueous solutions as gelling systems, suggesting the discovery of a prototype for a new family of thermosetting gels highly compatible with biological compounds.

1,208 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Many chitosan hydrogels are obtained by treatment with multivalent anions: the case of glycerolphosphate is mentioned above [104], but oxalic acid has also been used [93b,184] as well as tripolyphosphate [185,186]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2001-Polymer
Abstract: The use of infrared spectroscopy for characterization of the composition of chitin and chitosan covering the entire range of degree of acetylation (DA) and a wide variety of raw materials is examined further. The ratio of absorbance bands selected was calibrated using 1 H liquid and 13 C CP-MAS solid-state NMR as absolute techniques. IR spectra of the structural units of these polymers validated the choice of baselines and characteristic bands. The bands at 1650 and 1320 cm −1 were chosen to measure the DA. As internal reference, the intensities at 3450 and 1420 cm −1 were evaluated. The absorption band ratios involving the reference at 3450 cm −1 had poorer fit.. The absorption ratio A 1320 / A 1420 shows superior agreement between the absolute and estimated DA-values (DA%=31.92 A 1320 / A 1420 −12.20; r =0.990).

1,112 citations


"Chitin and chitosan: Properties and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This hypothesis is reinforced by the presence of only one band in this region for Nacetyl D-glucosamine [37,42]....

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