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Xujiong Ye

Bio: Xujiong Ye is an academic researcher from University of Lincoln. The author has contributed to research in topics: Segmentation & Image segmentation. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 96 publications receiving 3258 citations. Previous affiliations of Xujiong Ye include Dalhousie University & University of Oxford.


Papers
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Posted ContentDOI
Spyridon Bakas1, Mauricio Reyes, Andras Jakab2, Stefan Bauer3  +435 moreInstitutions (111)
TL;DR: This study assesses the state-of-the-art machine learning methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018, and investigates the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks.
Abstract: Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies, with different degrees of aggressiveness, variable prognosis and various heterogeneous histologic sub-regions, i.e., peritumoral edematous/invaded tissue, necrotic core, active and non-enhancing core. This intrinsic heterogeneity is also portrayed in their radio-phenotype, as their sub-regions are depicted by varying intensity profiles disseminated across multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans, reflecting varying biological properties. Their heterogeneous shape, extent, and location are some of the factors that make these tumors difficult to resect, and in some cases inoperable. The amount of resected tumoris a factor also considered in longitudinal scans, when evaluating the apparent tumor for potential diagnosis of progression. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that accurate segmentation of the various tumor sub-regions can offer the basis for quantitative image analysis towards prediction of patient overall survival. This study assesses thestate-of-the-art machine learning (ML) methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018. Specifically, we focus on i) evaluating segmentations of the various glioma sub-regions in pre-operative mpMRI scans, ii) assessing potential tumor progression by virtue of longitudinal growth of tumor sub-regions, beyond use of the RECIST/RANO criteria, and iii) predicting the overall survival from pre-operative mpMRI scans of patients that underwent gross tota lresection. Finally, we investigate the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks, considering that apart from being diverse on each instance of the challenge, the multi-institutional mpMRI BraTS dataset has also been a continuously evolving/growing dataset.

1,165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a deep learning-based strategy for reconstruction of CS-MRI, and bridges a substantial gap between conventional non-learning methods working only on data from a single image, and prior knowledge from large training data sets.
Abstract: Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) enables fast acquisition, which is highly desirable for numerous clinical applications. This can not only reduce the scanning cost and ease patient burden, but also potentially reduce motion artefacts and the effect of contrast washout, thus yielding better image quality. Different from parallel imaging-based fast MRI, which utilizes multiple coils to simultaneously receive MR signals, CS-MRI breaks the Nyquist–Shannon sampling barrier to reconstruct MRI images with much less required raw data. This paper provides a deep learning-based strategy for reconstruction of CS-MRI, and bridges a substantial gap between conventional non-learning methods working only on data from a single image, and prior knowledge from large training data sets. In particular, a novel conditional Generative Adversarial Networks-based model (DAGAN)-based model is proposed to reconstruct CS-MRI. In our DAGAN architecture, we have designed a refinement learning method to stabilize our U-Net based generator, which provides an end-to-end network to reduce aliasing artefacts. To better preserve texture and edges in the reconstruction, we have coupled the adversarial loss with an innovative content loss. In addition, we incorporate frequency-domain information to enforce similarity in both the image and frequency domains. We have performed comprehensive comparison studies with both conventional CS-MRI reconstruction methods and newly investigated deep learning approaches. Compared with these methods, our DAGAN method provides superior reconstruction with preserved perceptual image details. Furthermore, each image is reconstructed in about 5 ms, which is suitable for real-time processing.

835 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed computer tomography lung nodule computer-aided detection method has been trained and validated on a clinical dataset of 108 thoracic CT scans using a wide range of tube dose levels and shows much promise for clinical applications.
Abstract: In this paper, a new computer tomography (CT) lung nodule computer-aided detection (CAD) method is proposed for detecting both solid nodules and ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules (part solid and nonsolid). This method consists of several steps. First, the lung region is segmented from the CT data using a fuzzy thresholding method. Then, the volumetric shape index map, which is based on local Gaussian and mean curvatures, and the ldquodotrdquo map, which is based on the eigenvalues of a Hessian matrix, are calculated for each voxel within the lungs to enhance objects of a specific shape with high spherical elements (such as nodule objects). The combination of the shape index (local shape information) and ldquodotrdquo features (local intensity dispersion information) provides a good structure descriptor for the initial nodule candidates generation. Antigeometric diffusion, which diffuses across the image edges, is used as a preprocessing step. The smoothness of image edges enables the accurate calculation of voxel-based geometric features. Adaptive thresholding and modified expectation-maximization methods are employed to segment potential nodule objects. Rule-based filtering is first used to remove easily dismissible nonnodule objects. This is followed by a weighted support vector machine (SVM) classification to further reduce the number of false positive (FP) objects. The proposed method has been trained and validated on a clinical dataset of 108 thoracic CT scans using a wide range of tube dose levels that contain 220 nodules (185 solid nodules and 35 GGO nodules) determined by a ground truth reading process. The data were randomly split into training and testing datasets. The experimental results using the independent dataset indicate an average detection rate of 90.2%, with approximately 8.2 FP/scan. Some challenging nodules such as nonspherical nodules and low-contrast part-solid and nonsolid nodules were identified, while most tissues such as blood vessels were excluded. The method's high detection rate, fast computation, and applicability to different imaging conditions and nodule types shows much promise for clinical applications.

282 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An efficient algorithm for segmenting different types of pulmonary nodules including high and low contrast nodules, nodules with vasculature attachment, and nodules in the close vicinity of the lung wall or diaphragm is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents an efficient algorithm for segmenting different types of pulmonary nodules including high and low contrast nodules, nodules with vasculature attachment, and nodules in the close vicinity of the lung wall or diaphragm. The algorithm performs an adaptive sphericity oriented contrast region growing on the fuzzy connectivity map of the object of interest. This region growing is operated within a volumetric mask which is created by first applying a local adaptive segmentation algorithm that identifies foreground and background regions within a certain window size. The foreground objects are then filled to remove any holes, and a spatial connectivity map is generated to create a 3-D mask. The mask is then enlarged to contain the background while excluding unwanted foreground regions. Apart from generating a confined search volume, the mask is also used to estimate the parameters for the subsequent region growing, as well as for repositioning the seed point in order to ensure reproducibility. The method was run on 815 pulmonary nodules. By using randomly placed seed points, the approach was shown to be fully reproducible. As for acceptability, the segmentation results were visually inspected by a qualified radiologist to search for any gross misssegmentation. 84% of the first results of the segmentation were accepted by the radiologist while for the remaining 16% nodules, alternative segmentation solutions that were provided by the method were selected.

251 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This provides a close match to expert delineation across all grades of glioma, leading to a faster and more reproducible method of brain tumour detection and delineation to aid patient management.
Abstract: We propose a fully automated method for detection and segmentation of the abnormal tissue associated with brain tumour (tumour core and oedema) from Fluid- Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The method is based on superpixel technique and classification of each superpixel. A number of novel image features including intensity-based, Gabor textons, fractal analysis and curvatures are calculated from each superpixel within the entire brain area in FLAIR MRI to ensure a robust classification. Extremely randomized trees (ERT) classifier is compared with support vector machine (SVM) to classify each superpixel into tumour and non-tumour. The proposed method is evaluated on two datasets: (1) Our own clinical dataset: 19 MRI FLAIR images of patients with gliomas of grade II to IV, and (2) BRATS 2012 dataset: 30 FLAIR images with 10 low-grade and 20 high-grade gliomas. The experimental results demonstrate the high detection and segmentation performance of the proposed method using ERT classifier. For our own cohort, the average detection sensitivity, balanced error rate and the Dice overlap measure for the segmented tumour against the ground truth are 89.48 %, 6 % and 0.91, respectively, while, for the BRATS dataset, the corresponding evaluation results are 88.09 %, 6 % and 0.88, respectively. This provides a close match to expert delineation across all grades of glioma, leading to a faster and more reproducible method of brain tumour detection and delineation to aid patient management.

246 citations


Cited by
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Christopher M. Bishop1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: "Radiomics" refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, leading to a very large potential subject pool.

1,608 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of ensemble learning is introduced, traditional, novel and state‐of‐the‐art ensemble methods are reviewed and current challenges and trends in the field are discussed.
Abstract: Ensemble methods are considered the state‐of‐the art solution for many machine learning challenges. Such methods improve the predictive performance of a single model by training multiple models and combining their predictions. This paper introduce the concept of ensemble learning, reviews traditional, novel and state‐of‐the‐art ensemble methods and discusses current challenges and trends in the field.

1,381 citations

Posted ContentDOI
Spyridon Bakas1, Mauricio Reyes, Andras Jakab2, Stefan Bauer3  +435 moreInstitutions (111)
TL;DR: This study assesses the state-of-the-art machine learning methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018, and investigates the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks.
Abstract: Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies, with different degrees of aggressiveness, variable prognosis and various heterogeneous histologic sub-regions, i.e., peritumoral edematous/invaded tissue, necrotic core, active and non-enhancing core. This intrinsic heterogeneity is also portrayed in their radio-phenotype, as their sub-regions are depicted by varying intensity profiles disseminated across multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans, reflecting varying biological properties. Their heterogeneous shape, extent, and location are some of the factors that make these tumors difficult to resect, and in some cases inoperable. The amount of resected tumoris a factor also considered in longitudinal scans, when evaluating the apparent tumor for potential diagnosis of progression. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that accurate segmentation of the various tumor sub-regions can offer the basis for quantitative image analysis towards prediction of patient overall survival. This study assesses thestate-of-the-art machine learning (ML) methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018. Specifically, we focus on i) evaluating segmentations of the various glioma sub-regions in pre-operative mpMRI scans, ii) assessing potential tumor progression by virtue of longitudinal growth of tumor sub-regions, beyond use of the RECIST/RANO criteria, and iii) predicting the overall survival from pre-operative mpMRI scans of patients that underwent gross tota lresection. Finally, we investigate the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks, considering that apart from being diverse on each instance of the challenge, the multi-institutional mpMRI BraTS dataset has also been a continuously evolving/growing dataset.

1,165 citations