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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2020.12.036

RADX controls RAD51 filament dynamics to regulate replication fork stability.

04 Mar 2021-Molecular Cell (Cell Press)-Vol. 81, Iss: 5
Abstract: The RAD51 recombinase forms nucleoprotein filaments to promote double-strand break repair, replication fork reversal, and fork stabilization. The stability of these filaments is highly regulated, as both too little and too much RAD51 activity can cause genome instability. RADX is a single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that regulates DNA replication. Here, we define its mechanism of action. We find that RADX inhibits RAD51 strand exchange and D-loop formation activities. RADX directly and selectively interacts with ATP-bound RAD51, stimulates ATP hydrolysis, and destabilizes RAD51 nucleofilaments. The RADX interaction with RAD51, in addition to its ssDNA binding capability, is required to maintain replication fork elongation rates and fork stability. Furthermore, BRCA2 can overcome the RADX-dependent RAD51 inhibition. Thus, RADX functions in opposition to BRCA2 in regulating RAD51 nucleofilament stability to ensure the right level of RAD51 function during DNA replication.

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Topics: Replication fork reversal (77%), DNA replication (60%), DNA repair (53%)
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.670392
Shan Qiu1, Guixing Jiang1, Liping Cao1, Jun Huang1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: During genome replication, replication forks often encounter obstacles that impede their progression. Arrested forks are unstable structures that can give rise to collapse and rearrange if they are not properly processed and restarted. Replication fork reversal is a critical protective mechanism in higher eukaryotic cells in response to replication stress, in which forks reverse their direction to form a Holliday junction-like structure. The reversed replication forks are protected from nuclease degradation by DNA damage repair proteins, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51. Some of these molecules work cooperatively, while others have unique functions. Once the stress is resolved, the replication forks can restart with the help of enzymes, including human RECQ1 helicase, but restart will not be considered here. Here, we review research on the key factors and mechanisms required for the remodeling and protection of stalled replication forks in mammalian cells.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2021.05.014
15 Jul 2021-Molecular Cell
Abstract: RAD51 facilitates replication fork reversal and protects reversed forks from nuclease degradation. Although potentially a useful replication stress response mechanism, unregulated fork reversal can cause genome instability. Here we show that RADX, a single-strand DNA binding protein that binds to and destabilizes RAD51 nucleofilaments, can either inhibit or promote fork reversal depending on replication stress levels. RADX inhibits fork reversal at elongating forks, thereby preventing fork slowing and collapse. Paradoxically, in the presence of persistent replication stress, RADX localizes to stalled forks to generate reversed fork structures. Consequently, inactivating RADX prevents fork-reversal-dependent telomere dysfunction in the absence of RTEL1 and blocks nascent strand degradation when fork protection factors are inactivated. Addition of RADX increases SMARCAL1-dependent fork reversal in conditions in which pre-binding RAD51 to a model fork substrate is inhibitory. Thus, RADX directly interacts with RAD51 and single-strand DNA to confine fork reversal to persistently stalled forks.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.GDE.2021.09.001
Florian Morati1, Mauro Modesti1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Genomic integrity depends on the RecA/RAD51 protein family. Discovered over five decades ago with the founder bacterial RecA protein, eukaryotic RAD51 is an ATP-dependent DNA strand transferase implicated in DNA double-strand break and single-strand gap repair, and in dealing with stressed DNA replication forks. RAD51 assembles as a nucleoprotein filament around single-stranded DNA to promote homology recognition in a duplex DNA and subsequent strand exchange. While the intrinsic dynamics of the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament has been extensively studied, a plethora of accessory factors control its dynamics. Understanding how modulators control filament dynamics is at the heart of current research efforts. Here, we describe recent advances in RAD51 control mechanisms obtained specifically using fluorescence-based single-molecule techniques.

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Topics: DNA replication (57%), RAD51 (55%), DNA (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/GENES12101550
Félix Prado1Institutions (1)
29 Sep 2021-Genes
Abstract: The DNA damage tolerance (DDT) response is aimed to timely and safely complete DNA replication by facilitating the advance of replication forks through blocking lesions. This process is associated with an accumulation of single-strand DNA (ssDNA), both at the fork and behind the fork. Lesion bypass and ssDNA filling can be performed by translation synthesis (TLS) and template switching mechanisms. TLS uses low-fidelity polymerases to incorporate a dNTP opposite the blocking lesion, whereas template switching uses a Rad51/ssDNA nucleofilament and the sister chromatid to bypass the lesion. Rad51 is loaded at this nucleofilament by two mediator proteins, BRCA2 and Rad52, and these three factors are critical for homologous recombination (HR). Here, we review recent advances showing that Rad51, BRCA2, and Rad52 perform some of these functions through mechanisms that do not require the strand exchange activity of Rad51: the formation and protection of reversed fork structures aimed to bypass blocking lesions, and the promotion of TLS. These findings point to the central HR proteins as potential molecular switches in the choice of the mechanism of DDT.

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Topics: DNA replication (55%), DNA damage (52%), Homologous recombination (51%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FGENE.2021.780293
Abstract: DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and inter-strand cross-links are the most harmful types of DNA damage that cause genomic instability that lead to cancer development. The highest fidelity pathway for repairing damaged DNA is termed Homologous recombination (HR). Rad52 is one of the key HR proteins in eukaryotes. Although it is critical for most DNA repair and recombination events in yeast, knockouts of mammalian RAD52 lack any discernable phenotypes. As a consequence, mammalian RAD52 has been long overlooked. That is changing now, as recent work has shown RAD52 to be critical for backup DNA repair pathways in HR- deficient cancer cells. Novel findings have shed light on RAD52’s biochemical activities. RAD52 promotes DNA pairing (D-loop formation) and ssDNA and DNA:RNA annealing, and inverse strand exchange. These activities contribute to its multiple roles in the DNA damage repair including HR, single-strand annealing (SSA), break-induced replication (BIR), and RNA-mediated repair of DNA. The contributions of RAD52 that are essential to the viability of HR-deficient cancer cells are currently under investigation. These new findings make RAD52 an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer therapies against BRCA-deficient cancers.

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Topics: DNA repair (69%), DNA damage (63%), Homologous recombination (60%) ... read more
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40 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/0471140864.PS0209S50
Abstract: Functional characterization of a protein sequence is a common goal in biology, and is usually facilitated by having an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the studied protein. In the absence of an experimentally determined structure, comparative or homology modeling can sometimes provide a useful 3-D model for a protein that is related to at least one known protein structure. Comparative modeling predicts the 3-D structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications. Modeling lactate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvLDH) is described as an example. The download and installation of the MODELLER software is also described.

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Topics: ModBase (68%), MODELLER (61%), Homology modeling (58%) ... read more

3,377 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2011.03.041
13 May 2011-Cell
Abstract: Breast cancer suppressor BRCA2 is critical for maintenance of genomic integrity and resistance to agents that damage DNA or collapse replication forks, presumably through homology-directed repair of double-strand breaks (HDR). Using single-molecule DNA fiber analysis, we show here that nascent replication tracts created before fork stalling with hydroxyurea are degraded in the absence of BRCA2 but are stable in wild-type cells. BRCA2 mutational analysis reveals that a conserved C-terminal site involved in stabilizing RAD51 filaments, but not in loading RAD51 onto DNA, is essential for this fork protection but dispensable for HDR. RAD51 filament disruption in wild-type cells phenocopies BRCA2 deficiency. BRCA2 prevents chromosomal aberrations on replication stalling, which are alleviated by inhibition of MRE11, the nuclease responsible for this form of fork instability. Thus, BRCA2 prevents rather than repairs nucleolytic lesions at stalled replication forks to maintain genomic integrity and hence likely suppresses tumorigenesis through this replication-specific function.

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Topics: Replication fork protection (77%), Replication fork reversal (73%), DNA replication (58%) ... read more

839 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE01230
Luca Pellegrini1, David S. Yu1, Thomas Lo1, Shubha Anand1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
21 Nov 2002-Nature
Abstract: The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 controls the function of RAD51, a recombinase enzyme, in pathways for DNA repair by homologous recombination. We report here the structure of a complex between an evolutionarily conserved sequence in BRCA2 (the BRC repeat) and the RecA-homology domain of RAD51. The BRC repeat mimics a motif in RAD51 that serves as an interface for oligomerization between individual RAD51 monomers, thus enabling BRCA2 to control the assembly of the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament, which is essential for strand-pairing reactions during DNA recombination. The RAD51 oligomerization motif is highly conserved among RecA-like recombinases, highlighting a common evolutionary origin for the mechanism of nucleoprotein filament formation, mirrored in the BRC repeat. Cancer-associated mutations that affect the BRC repeat disrupt its predicted interaction with RAD51, yielding structural insight into mechanisms for cancer susceptibility.

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Topics: Recombinase (57%), Homologous recombination (57%), RAD51 (56%) ... read more

633 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09399
07 Oct 2010-Nature
Abstract: Mutation of the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, leads to breast and ovarian cancers. Mechanistic insight into the functions of human BRCA2 has been limited by the difficulty of isolating this large protein (3,418 amino acids). Here we report the purification of full-length BRCA2 and show that it both binds RAD51 and potentiates recombinational DNA repair by promoting assembly of RAD51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). BRCA2 acts by targeting RAD51 to ssDNA over double-stranded DNA, enabling RAD51 to displace replication protein-A (RPA) from ssDNA and stabilizing RAD51-ssDNA filaments by blocking ATP hydrolysis. BRCA2 does not anneal ssDNA complexed with RPA, implying it does not directly function in repair processes that involve ssDNA annealing. Our findings show that BRCA2 is a key mediator of homologous recombination, and they provide a molecular basis for understanding how this DNA repair process is disrupted by BRCA2 mutations, which lead to chromosomal instability and cancer.

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Topics: Replication protein A (71%), DNA repair (60%), RAD51 (60%) ... read more

536 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.201406099
Ralph Zellweger1, Damian Dalcher1, Karun Mutreja1, Matteo Berti2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Replication fork reversal protects forks from breakage after poisoning of Topoisomerase 1. We here investigated fork progression and chromosomal breakage in human cells in response to a panel of sublethal genotoxic treatments, using other topoisomerase poisons, DNA synthesis inhibitors, interstrand cross-linking inducers, and base-damaging agents. We used electron microscopy to visualize fork architecture under these conditions and analyzed the association of specific molecular features with checkpoint activation. Our data identify replication fork uncoupling and reversal as global responses to genotoxic treatments. Both events are frequent even after mild treatments that do not affect fork integrity, nor activate checkpoints. Fork reversal was found to be dependent on the central homologous recombination factor RAD51, which is consistently present at replication forks independently of their breakage, and to be antagonized by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase/RECQ1-regulated restart. Our work establishes remodeling of uncoupled forks as a pivotal RAD51-regulated response to genotoxic stress in human cells and as a promising target to potentiate cancer chemotherapy.

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Topics: Replication fork reversal (80%), Replication fork protection (74%), DNA Replication Fork (65%) ... read more

410 Citations