scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Single-Junction Organic Solar Cell with over 15% Efficiency Using Fused-Ring Acceptor with Electron-Deficient Core

17 Apr 2019-Joule (Cell Press)-Vol. 3, Iss: 4, pp 1140-1151

Abstract: Summary Recently, non-fullerene n-type organic semiconductors have attracted significant attention as acceptors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) due to their great potential to realize high-power conversion efficiencies. The rational design of the central fused ring unit of these acceptor molecules is crucial to maximize device performance. Here, we report a new class of non-fullerene acceptor, Y6, that employs a ladder-type electron-deficient-core-based central fused ring (dithienothiophen[3.2-b]- pyrrolobenzothiadiazole) with a benzothiadiazole (BT) core to fine-tune its absorption and electron affinity. OPVs made from Y6 in conventional and inverted architectures each exhibited a high efficiency of 15.7%, measured in two separate labs. Inverted device structures were certified at Enli Tech Laboratory demonstrated an efficiency of 14.9%. We further observed that the Y6-based devices maintain a high efficiency of 13.6% with an active layer thickness of 300 nm. The electron-deficient-core-based fused ring reported in this work opens a new door in the molecular design of high-performance acceptors for OPVs.
Topics: Organic solar cell (54%), Acceptor (52%), Organic semiconductor (51%)
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Qishi Liu1, Qishi Liu2, Yufan Jiang1, Yufan Jiang3  +11 moreInstitutions (4)

1,289 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yong Cui1, Huifeng Yao1, Jianqi Zhang, Tao Zhang1  +10 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: This study demonstrates that finely tuning the OPV materials to reduce the bandgap-voltage offset has great potential for boosting the efficiency and unexpectedly obtain higher open-circuit voltages and achieve a record high PCE of 16.5% by chlorination.
Abstract: Broadening the optical absorption of organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials by enhancing the intramolecular push-pull effect is a general and effective method to improve the power conversion efficiencies of OPV cells. However, in terms of the electron acceptors, the most common molecular design strategy of halogenation usually results in down-shifted molecular energy levels, thereby leading to decreased open-circuit voltages in the devices. Herein, we report a chlorinated non-fullerene acceptor, which exhibits an extended optical absorption and meanwhile displays a higher voltage than its fluorinated counterpart in the devices. This unexpected phenomenon can be ascribed to the reduced non-radiative energy loss (0.206 eV). Due to the simultaneously improved short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage, a high efficiency of 16.5% is achieved. This study demonstrates that finely tuning the OPV materials to reduce the bandgap-voltage offset has great potential for boosting the efficiency. Halogenation has proved an effective strategy to improve the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells but it usually leads to lower open-circuit voltages. Here, Cui et al. unexpectedly obtain higher open-circuit voltages and achieve a record high PCE of 16.5% by chlorination.

1,018 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yong Cui1, Huifeng Yao1, Jianqi Zhang2, Kaihu Xian1  +12 moreInstitutions (3)
01 May 2020-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that minimizing the alkyl chains to get suitable solubility and enhanced intermolecular packing has a great potential in further improving its photovoltaic performance.
Abstract: Optimizing the molecular structures of organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials is one of the most effective methods to boost power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). For an excellent molecular system with a certain conjugated skeleton, fine tuning the alky chains is of considerable significance to fully explore its photovoltaic potential. In this work, the optimization of alkyl chains is performed on a chlorinated nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) named BTP-4Cl-BO (a Y6 derivative) and very impressive photovoltaic parameters in OPV cells are obtained. To get more ordered intermolecular packing, the n-undecyl is shortened at the edge of BTP-eC11 to n-nonyl and n-heptyl. As a result, the NFAs of BTP-eC9 and BTP-eC7 are synthesized. The BTP-eC7 shows relatively poor solubility and thus limits its application in device fabrication. Fortunately, the BTP-eC9 possesses good solubility and, at the same time, enhanced electron transport property than BTP-eC11. Significantly, due to the simultaneously enhanced short-circuit current density and fill factor, the BTP-eC9-based single-junction OPV cells record a maximum PCE of 17.8% and get a certified value of 17.3%. These results demonstrate that minimizing the alkyl chains to get suitable solubility and enhanced intermolecular packing has a great potential in further improving its photovoltaic performance.

686 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Xiaopeng Xu1, Kui Feng1, Zhaozhao Bi2, Wei Ma2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jul 2019-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: The bulky benzene ring on the platinum(II) complex increases the steric hindrance along the polymer main chain, inhibits the polymer aggregation strength, regulates the phase separation, optimizes the morphology, and thus improves the efficiency to 16.35% is the highest efficiency for single-junction PSCs reported so far.
Abstract: A new strategy of platinum(II) complexation is developed to regulate the crystallinity and molecular packing of polynitrogen heterocyclic polymers, optimize the morphology of the active blends, and improve the efficiency of the resulting nonfullerene polymer solar cells (NF-PSCs). The newly designed s-tetrazine (s-TZ)-containing copolymer of PSFTZ (4,8-bis(5-((2-butyloctyl)thio)-4-fluorothiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-3,6-bis(4-octylthiophen-2-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) has a strong aggregation property, which results in serious phase separation and large domains when blending with Y6 ((2,2'-((2Z,2'Z)-((12,13-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,9-diundecyl-12,13-dihydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-e]thieno[2″,3″:4',5']thieno[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[3,2-g]thieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]indole-2,10-diyl)bis(methanylylidene))bis(5,6-difluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diylidene))dimalononitrile)), and produces a power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.03%. By adding small amount of Pt(Ph)2 (DMSO)2 (Ph, phenyl and DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide), platinum(II) complexation would occur between Pt(Ph)2 (DMSO)2 and PSFTZ. The bulky benzene ring on the platinum(II) complex increases the steric hindrance along the polymer main chain, inhibits the polymer aggregation strength, regulates the phase separation, optimizes the morphology, and thus improves the efficiency to 16.35% in the resulting devices. 16.35% is the highest efficiency for single-junction PSCs reported so far.

439 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kui Jiang1, Kui Jiang2, Qingya Wei2, Joshua Yuk Lin Lai1  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Dec 2019-Joule
Abstract: Summary The field of organic solar cells has seen rapid developments after the report of a high-efficiency (15.7%) small molecule acceptor (SMA) named Y6. In this paper, we design and synthesize a family of SMAs with an aromatic backbone identical to that of Y6 but with different alkyl chains to investigate the influence of alkyl chains on the properties and performance of the SMAs. First, we show that it is beneficial to use branched alkyl chains on the nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole motif of the Y6. In addition, the branching position of the alkyl chains also has a major influence on material and device properties. The SMA with 3rd-position branched alkyl chains (named N3) exhibits optimal solubility and electronic and morphological properties, thus yielding the best performance. Further device optimization using a ternary strategy allows us to achieve a high efficiency of 16.74% (and a certified efficiency of 16.42%).

400 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
G. Yu1, Jun Gao1, Jan C. Hummelen1, Fred Wudl1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Dec 1995-Science
Abstract: The carrier collection efficiency (ηc) and energy conversion efficiency (ηe) of polymer photovoltaic cells were improved by blending of the semiconducting polymer with C60 or its functionalized derivatives. Composite films of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and fullerenes exhibit ηc of about 29 percent of electrons per photon and ηe of about 2.9 percent, efficiencies that are better by more than two orders of magnitude than those that have been achieved with devices made with pure MEH-PPV. The efficient charge separation results from photoinduced electron transfer from the MEH-PPV (as donor) to C60 (as acceptor); the high collection efficiency results from a bicontinuous network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions.

9,119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jeng-Da Chai1, Martin Head-Gordon1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected hybrid density functional, omegaB97X-D, to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions.
Abstract: We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functional [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 084106] to include empirical atom–atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, ωB97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent systems, ωB97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density functionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as ωB97X, the new functional is significantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions.

7,241 citations


"Single-Junction Organic Solar Cell ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...01.(46,47) To simplify the calculations, the alkyl side chains on the thiophene units were replaced by –CH3 groups, but the whole 2-ethylhexyl side chains on the two nitrogen atoms were included....

    [...]


Journal Article
Abstract: Long-Range Corrected Hybrid Density Functionals with Damped Atom-Atom Dispersion Corrections Jeng-Da Chai ∗ and Martin Head-Gordon † Department of Chemistry, University of California and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA (Dated: June 14, 2008) We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density func- tionals [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 084106 (2008)] to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, ωB97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent sys- tems, ωB97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density func- tionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics, it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as ωB97X, the new functional is significantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions. I. INTRODUCTION Due to its favorable cost-to-performance ratio, Kohn- Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) [1, 2] has be- come the most popular electronic structure theory for large-scale ground-state systems [3–5]. Its extension for treating excited-state systems [6, 7], time-dependent den- sity functional theory (TDDFT), has also been developed to the stage where it is now very widely used. The essential ingredient of KS-DFT, the exchange- correlation energy functional E xc , remains unknown and needs to be approximated. Semi-local gradient-corrected density functionals, though successful in many applica- tions, lead to qualitative failures in some circumstances, where the accurate treatment of non-locality of exchange- correlation hole becomes crucial. These situations occur mostly in the asymptotic regions of molecular systems, such as spurious self-interaction effects upon dissociation [8, 9] and dramatic failures for long-range charge-transfer excitations [10–12]. Widely used hybrid density function- als, like B3LYP [13, 14], do not qualitatively resolve these problems. These self-interaction errors can be qualitatively re- solved using the long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functionals [15, 16, 18], which employ 100% Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange for long-range electron-electron interac- tions. This is accomplished by a partition of unity, using erf(ωr)/r for long-range (treated by HF exchange) and erfc(ωr)/r for short-range (treated by an exchange func- tional), with the parameter ω controlling the partition- ing. Over the past five years, the LC hybrid scheme has been attracting increasing attention [15] since its compu- tational cost is comparable with standard hybrid func- tionals [13]. However, LC functionals have tended to be inferior to the best hybrids for properties such as ther- mochemistry. ∗ Electronic † Author address: jdchai@berkeley.edu to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic address: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu Recently we have improved the overall accuracy at- tainable with the LC functionals by using a systematic optimization procedure [18]. One important conclusion is that optimizing LC and hybrid functionals with identical numbers of parameters in their GGA exchange and cor- relation terms leads to noticeably better results for all properties using the LC form. The resulting LC func- tional is called ωB97. Further statistically significant improvement results from re-optimizing the entire func- tional with one extra parameter corresponding to an ad- justable fraction of short-range exact exchange, defining the ωB97X functional. Independent test sets covering thermochemistry and non-covalent interactions support these conclusions. However, problems associated with the lack of non-locality of the correlation hole, such as the lack of dispersion interactions (London forces), still remain, as the semi-local correlation functionals cannot capture long-range correlation effects [19, 20]. There have been significant efforts to develop a frame- work that can account for long-range dispersion effects within DFT. Zaremba and Kohn (ZK) [21] derived an exact expression for the second-order dispersion energy in terms of the exact density-density response functions of the two separate systems. To obtain a tractable non- local dispersion functional, Dobson and Dinite (DD) [22] made local density approximations to the ZK response functions. DD’s non-local correlation functional was ob- tained independently [23] by modifying the effective den- sity defined in the earlier work of Rapcewicz and Ashcroft Starting from the formally exact expression of KS- DFT, the adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem (ACFDT), for the ground-state exchange- correlation energy, Langreth and co-workers [25] devel- oped a so-called van der Waals density functional (vdW- DF) by making a series of reasonable approximations to yield a computationally tractable scheme. Recently, Becke and Johnson (BJ) developed a series of post-HF correlation models with a novel treatment for dispersion interactions based on the exchange-hole dipole moment [26]. The origin of dispersion claimed in the BJ models was recently questioned by Alonso, and A.

6,345 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sung Heum Park1, Sung Heum Park2, Anshuman Roy1, Serge Beaupré  +11 moreInstitutions (2)
01 May 2009-Nature Photonics
Abstract: A polymer solar-cell based on a bulk hetereojunction design with an internal quantum efficiency of over 90% across the visible spectrum (425 nm to 575 nm) is reported. The device exhibits a power-conversion efficiency of 6% under standard air-mass 1.5 global illumination tests.

3,901 citations


"Single-Junction Organic Solar Cell ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Indeed, because of its commercial availability and sp(2)-hybridized nitrogen atoms endowing electron-withdrawing character, BT has been popular in constructing low-bandgap conjugated materials and polymers.(40) Moreover, BT-based polymers can potentially offer highly efficient thick-active-layer OPVs due to their good mobility....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2008-Angewandte Chemie
TL;DR: Polymer-based organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise for a cost-effective, lightweight solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution processing of the active layer.
Abstract: Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Polymer-based organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise for a cost-effective, lightweight solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution processing of the active layer. The function of such excitonic solar cells is based on photoinduced electron transfer from a donor to an acceptor. Fullerenes have become the ubiquitous acceptors because of their high electron affinity and ability to transport charge effectively. The most effective solar cells have been made from bicontinuous polymer–fullerene composites, or so-called bulk heterojunctions. The best solar cells currently achieve an efficiency of about 5 %, thus significant advances in the fundamental understanding of the complex interplay between the active layer morphology and electronic properties are required if this technology is to find viable application.

3,800 citations


"Single-Junction Organic Solar Cell ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...010 was used for all calculations.(3) The molecule Y6 was studied, with the N-alkyl chains replaced with N-secButyl groups, and the side alkyl chains replaced with –CH3....

    [...]


Network Information
Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202235
2021866
2020823
2019387
20171