About: Mammal Research Institute is a facility organization based out in Białowieża, Poland. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Species richness. The organization has 643 authors who have published 1662 publications receiving 47393 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Colorado State University1, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research2, United States Forest Service3, United States Geological Survey4, École Normale Supérieure5, University of Lyon6, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation7, Lund University8, University of Dar es Salaam9, Princeton University10, University of Nairobi11, University of Virginia12, University of Cape Town13, University of Zimbabwe14, Mammal Research Institute15, University of Wisconsin-Madison16, Wageningen University and Research Centre17, University of Botswana18, University of Potsdam19, South African National Parks20
TL;DR: It is shown, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ∼650 mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP.
Abstract: Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties1–3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in regulating woody cover1,2,4,5, but perceptions differ on which of these are the primary drivers of savanna structure. Here we show, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ,650mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP. These arid and semi-arid savannas may be considered ‘stable' systems in which water constrains woody cover and permits grasses to coexist, while fire, herbivory and soil properties interact to reduce woody cover below the MAP-controlled upper bound. Above a MAP of ,650mm, savannas are ‘unstable' systems in which MAP is sufficient for woody canopy closure, and disturbances (fire, herbivory) are required for the coexistence of trees and grass. These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation6 may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics.
Oregon State University1, University of Sydney2, Stanford University3, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University4, Sao Paulo State University5, UPRRP College of Natural Sciences6, Panthera Corporation7, Mammal Research Institute8, University of Oxford9, Environmental Change Institute10, Duke University11, University of California, Los Angeles12
TL;DR: The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs.
Abstract: Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs.
Goethe University Frankfurt1, University of Maryland, College Park2, University of Guelph3, Duke University4, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences5, Radboud University Nijmegen6, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul7, University of Alberta8, Royal Veterinary College9, Wildlife Conservation Society10, Mississippi State University11, Sao Paulo State University12, Michigan Department of Natural Resources13, University of California, Davis14, Aarhus University15, Max Planck Society16, University of Potsdam17, Middle Tennessee State University18, Mammal Research Institute19, Harvard University20, Edmund Mach Foundation21, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute22, University of Évora23, University of Montpellier24, Parks Victoria25, Monash University26, Ohio State University27, Fiji National University28, University of Massachusetts Amherst29, United States Geological Survey30, University of Oxford31, Save the Elephants32, German Primate Center33, Technische Universität München34, Institute of Ecosystem Studies35, University of British Columbia36, University of Zurich37, University of Wyoming38, University of Washington39, University of Montana40, University of Freiburg41, Bavarian Forest National Park42, University of Toulouse43, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna44, University College Cork45, North Carolina State University46, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences47, Karatina University48, University of Lethbridge49, Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory50, University of Valencia51, Stony Brook University52, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources53, University of Alicante54, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária55, University of Glasgow56, New York University57, University of Oslo58, Hebrew University of Jerusalem59, Norwegian University of Science and Technology60, Field Museum of Natural History61, University of Bayreuth62, University of Grenoble63, University of New South Wales64, Pennsylvania Game Commission65, Princeton University66, University of Konstanz67, University of Haifa68, Polish Academy of Sciences69, University of Lisbon70, Instituto Superior de Agronomia71, University of Porto72, University of California, Santa Cruz73, University of Pretoria74, Colorado State University75
TL;DR: Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, it is found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in area with a low human footprint.
Abstract: Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not only population persistence but also ecosystem processes such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and disease transmission.
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that LoCoH methods are superior to parametric kernel methods in estimating areas used by animals, excluding unused areas (holes) and, generally, in constructing UDs and HRs arising from the movement of animals influenced by hard boundaries and irregular structures.
Abstract: Parametric kernel methods currently dominate the literature regarding the construction of animal home ranges (HRs) and utilization distributions (UDs). These methods frequently fail to capture the kinds of hard boundaries common to many natural systems. Recently a local convex hull (LoCoH) nonparametric kernel method, which generalizes the minimum convex polygon (MCP) method, was shown to be more appropriate than parametric kernel methods for constructing HRs and UDs, because of its ability to identify hard boundaries (e.g., rivers, cliff edges) and convergence to the true distribution as sample size increases. Here we extend the LoCoH in two ways: ‘‘fixed sphere-of-influence,’’ or r-LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a fixed radius r of each reference point), and an ‘‘adaptive sphere-of-influence,’’ or a-LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a radius a such that the distances of all points within the radius to the reference point sum to a value less than or equal to a), and compare them to the original ‘‘fixed-number-of-points,’’ or k-LoCoH (all kernels constructed from k-1 nearest neighbors of root points). We also compare these nonparametric LoCoH to parametric kernel methods using manufactured data and data collected from GPS collars on African buffalo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results demonstrate that LoCoH methods are superior to parametric kernel methods in estimating areas used by animals, excluding unused areas (holes) and, generally, in constructing UDs and HRs arising from the movement of animals influenced by hard boundaries and irregular structures (e.g., rocky outcrops). We also demonstrate that a-LoCoH is generally superior to k- and r-LoCoH (with software for all three methods available at http://locoh.cnr.berkeley.edu).
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that social integration between unrelated females increases both foal birth rates and survival, independent of maternal habitat quality, social group type, dominance status, and age, while controlling for the confounding influence of kinship.
Abstract: In many mammals, females form close social bonds with members of their group, usually between kin. Studies of social bonds and their fitness benefits have not been investigated outside primates, and are confounded by the relatedness between individuals in primate groups. Bonds may arise from kin selection and inclusive fitness rather than through direct benefits of association. However, female equids live in long-term social groups with unrelated members. We present 4 years of behavioral data, which demonstrate that social integration between unrelated females increases both foal birth rates and survival, independent of maternal habitat quality, social group type, dominance status, and age. Also, we show that such social integration reduces harassment by males. Consequently, social integration has strong direct fitness consequences between nonrelatives, suggesting that social bonds can evolve based on these direct benefits alone. Our results support recent studies highlighting the importance of direct benefits in maintaining cooperative behavior, while controlling for the confounding influence of kinship.
Showing all 645 results
|Tim H. Clutton-Brock||127||429||63802|
|Stuart L. Pimm||88||296||33856|
|Robert P. Millar||82||405||22465|
|Wayne M. Getz||66||330||19410|
|Nigel C. Bennett||53||481||12550|
|Clive R. McMahon||45||177||6558|
|Terence J. Robinson||45||155||6543|
|Paul C. Cross||45||176||7379|
|Matt W. Hayward||44||187||7616|
|Michael J. Somers||44||217||8083|
|Thomas P. Sullivan||41||169||4776|
|Marthán N Bester||40||187||4738|
|Peter A. Lindsey||39||75||5164|
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