University of Zimbabwe
Education•Harare, Harare, Zimbabwe•
About: University of Zimbabwe is a(n) education organization based out in Harare, Harare, Zimbabwe. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The organization has 4378 authors who have published 6800 publication(s) receiving 160720 citation(s). The organization is also known as: UZ & University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill1, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center2, FHI 3603, University of Zimbabwe4, Johns Hopkins University5, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation6, Chiang Mai University7, Fenway Health8, Harvard University9, Kenya Medical Research Institute10, University of the Witwatersrand11, University of California, San Francisco12, University of Nebraska Medical Center13, National Institutes of Health14, University of California, Los Angeles15, University of Washington16
TL;DR: In this article, Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples.
Abstract: Background Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. Methods In nine countries, we...
Colorado State University1, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research2, United States Forest Service3, United States Geological Survey4, École Normale Supérieure5, University of Lyon6, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation7, Lund University8, University of Dar es Salaam9, Princeton University10, University of Nairobi11, University of Virginia12, University of Cape Town13, University of Zimbabwe14, Mammal Research Institute15, University of Wisconsin-Madison16, Wageningen University and Research Centre17, University of Botswana18, University of Potsdam19, South African National Parks20
TL;DR: It is shown, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ∼650 mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP.
Abstract: Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties1–3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in regulating woody cover1,2,4,5, but perceptions differ on which of these are the primary drivers of savanna structure. Here we show, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ,650mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP. These arid and semi-arid savannas may be considered ‘stable' systems in which water constrains woody cover and permits grasses to coexist, while fire, herbivory and soil properties interact to reduce woody cover below the MAP-controlled upper bound. Above a MAP of ,650mm, savannas are ‘unstable' systems in which MAP is sufficient for woody canopy closure, and disturbances (fire, herbivory) are required for the coexistence of trees and grass. These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation6 may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics.
University of Washington1, South African Medical Research Council2, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center3, FHI 3604, University of Zimbabwe5, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa6, Makerere University7, RTI International8, University of Pittsburgh9, Johns Hopkins University10, National Institutes of Health11, Université de Montréal12, Eastern Virginia Medical School13
TL;DR: None of the drug regimens evaluated reduced the rates of HIV-1 acquisition in an intention-to-treat analysis, and adherence to study drugs was low.
Abstract: BackgroundReproductive-age women need effective interventions to prevent the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. MethodsWe conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess daily treatment with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), oral tenofovir–emtricitabine (TDF-FTC), or 1% tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel as preexposure prophylaxis against HIV-1 infection in women in South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. HIV-1 testing was performed monthly, and plasma TFV levels were assessed quarterly. ResultsOf 12,320 women who were screened, 5029 were enrolled in the study. The rate of retention in the study was 91% during 5509 person-years of follow-up. A total of 312 HIV-1 infections occurred; the incidence of HIV-1 infection was 5.7 per 100 person-years. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, the effectiveness was −49.0% with TDF (hazard ratio for infection, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 2.29), −4.4% with TDF-FTC (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.4...
TL;DR: The authors examined the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set.
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify differences in pre-school nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in pre-schoolers are associated with increased height as a young adult and number of grades of schooling completed. Had the median pre-school child in this sample had the stature of a median child in a developed country, by adolescence, she would be 3.4 centimeters taller, had completed an additional 0.85 grades of schooling and would have commenced school six months earlier. © 2006 Oxford University Press.
Hamilton Health Sciences1, Population Health Research Institute2, University of São Paulo3, University of La Frontera4, Dubai Health Authority5, University of Gothenburg6, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences7, Independence University8, St. John's Medical College9, Aga Khan University10, Simon Fraser University11, Istanbul Medeniyet University12, UCSI University13, Universiti Teknologi MARA14, University of Wrocław15, University of Zimbabwe16, University of the Western Cape17, Peking Union Medical College18
18 Jul 2015-The Lancet
TL;DR: This study suggests that measurement of grip strength is a simple, inexpensive risk-stratifying method for all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract: Summary Background Reduced muscular strength, as measured by grip strength, has been associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Grip strength is appealing as a simple, quick, and inexpensive means of stratifying an individual's risk of cardiovascular death. However, the prognostic value of grip strength with respect to the number and range of populations and confounders is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the independent prognostic importance of grip strength measurement in socioculturally and economically diverse countries. Methods The Prospective Urban-Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, longitudinal population study done in 17 countries of varying incomes and sociocultural settings. We enrolled an unbiased sample of households, which were eligible if at least one household member was aged 35–70 years and if household members intended to stay at that address for another 4 years. Participants were assessed for grip strength, measured using a Jamar dynamometer. During a median follow-up of 4·0 years (IQR 2·9–5·1), we assessed all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, cancer, pneumonia, hospital admission for pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hospital admission for any respiratory disease (including COPD, asthma, tuberculosis, and pneumonia), injury due to fall, and fracture. Study outcomes were adjudicated using source documents by a local investigator, and a subset were adjudicated centrally. Findings Between January, 2003, and December, 2009, a total of 142 861 participants were enrolled in the PURE study, of whom 139 691 with known vital status were included in the analysis. During a median follow-up of 4·0 years (IQR 2·9–5·1), 3379 (2%) of 139 691 participants died. After adjustment, the association between grip strength and each outcome, with the exceptions of cancer and hospital admission due to respiratory illness, was similar across country-income strata. Grip strength was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 5 kg reduction in grip strength 1·16, 95% CI 1·13–1·20; p Interpretation This study suggests that measurement of grip strength is a simple, inexpensive risk-stratifying method for all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to identify determinants of muscular strength and to test whether improvement in strength reduces mortality and cardiovascular disease. Funding Full funding sources listed at end of paper (see Acknowledgments).
Showing all 4378 results
|Roy M. Anderson||116||526||65549|
|Richard M. Cowling||96||392||30042|
|Ken E. Giller||92||555||36374|
|Frances M. Cowan||76||456||19984|
|Robert J. Biggar||73||231||18474|
|Charles A. Thornton||71||182||17195|
|Bruce M. Campbell||67||227||17616|
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