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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0EM00398K

Concentrations and properties of ice nucleating substances in exudates from Antarctic sea-ice diatoms

04 Mar 2021-Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC))-Vol. 23, Iss: 2, pp 323-334
Abstract: The ocean contains ice nucleating substances (INSs), some of which can be emitted to the atmosphere where they can influence the formation and properties of clouds. A possible source of INSs in the ocean is exudates from sea-ice diatoms. Here we examine the concentrations and properties of INSs in supernatant samples from dense sea-ice diatom communities collected from Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound in the Antarctic. The median freezing temperatures of the samples ranged from approximately -17 to -22 °C. Based on our results and a comparison with results reported in the literature, the ice nucleating ability of exudates from sea-ice diatoms is likely not drastically different from the ice nucleating ability of exudates from temperate diatoms. The number of INSs per mass of DOC for the supernatant samples were lower than those reported previously for the sea surface microlayer and bulk sea water collected in the Arctic and Atlantic. The INSs in the supernatant sample collected from Ross Sea were not sensitive to temperatures up to 100 °C, were larger than 300 kDa, and were different from ice shaping and recrystallization inhibiting molecules present in the same sample. Possible candidates for these INSs include polysaccharide containing nanogels. The INSs in the supernatant sample collected from McMurdo Sound were sensitive to temperatures of 80 and 100 °C and were larger than 1000 kDa. Possible candidates for these INSs include protein containing nanogels.

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8 results found

Open access
01 Apr 2017-
Abstract: Abstract. Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are known to affect the amount of ice in mixed-phase clouds, thereby influencing many of their properties. The atmospheric INP concentration changes by orders of magnitude from terrestrial to marine environments, which typically contain much lower concentrations. Many modelling studies use parameterizations for heterogeneous ice nucleation and cloud ice processes that do not account for this difference because they were developed based on INP measurements made predominantly in terrestrial environments without considering the aerosol composition. Errors in the assumed INP concentration will influence the simulated amount of ice in mixed-phase clouds, leading to errors in top-of-atmosphere radiative flux and ultimately the climate sensitivity of the model. Here we develop a global model of INP concentrations relevant for mixed-phase clouds based on laboratory and field measurements of ice nucleation by K-feldspar (an ice-active component of desert dust) and marine organic aerosols (from sea spray). The simulated global distribution of INP concentrations based on these two species agrees much better with currently available ambient measurements than when INP concentrations are assumed to depend only on temperature or particle size. Underestimation of INP concentrations in some terrestrial locations may be due to the neglect of INPs from other terrestrial sources. Our model indicates that, on a monthly average basis, desert dusts dominate the contribution to the INP population over much of the world, but marine organics become increasingly important over remote oceans and they dominate over the Southern Ocean. However, day-to-day variability is important. Because desert dust aerosol tends to be sporadic, marine organic aerosols dominate the INP population on many days per month over much of the mid- and high-latitude Northern Hemisphere. This study advances our understanding of which aerosol species need to be included in order to adequately describe the global and regional distribution of INPs in models, which will guide ice nucleation researchers on where to focus future laboratory and field work.

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Topics: Feldspar (55%)

15 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSEARTHSPACECHEM.1C00034
Jingwei Yun1, Anand Kumar1, Nicole Removski1, Andrey Shchukarev2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
12 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Mineral dust particles can initiate the freezing of cloud droplets in the atmosphere. The freezing efficiency of these particles can, however, be strongly affected by solutes, such as inorganic aci...

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Topics: Mineral dust (53%), Atmosphere (52%), Potassium (50%)

5 Citations

Open access
Karen Junge1, Brian D. Swanson2Institutions (2)
01 Dec 2007-
Abstract: . Even though studies of Arctic ice forming particles suggest that a bacterial or viral source derived from open leads could be important for ice formation in Arctic clouds (Bigg and Leck, 2001), the ice nucleation potential of most polar marine psychrophiles or viruses has not been examined under conditions more closely resembling those in the atmosphere. In this paper, we examined the ice nucleation activity (INA) of several representative Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice bacterial isolates and a polar Colwellia phage virus. High-resolution ice nucleation spectra were obtained for droplets containing bacterial cells or virus particles using a free-fall freezing tube technique. The fraction of frozen droplets at a particular droplet temperature was determined by measuring the depolarized light scattering intensity from solution droplets in free-fall. Our experiments revealed that all sea-ice isolates and the virus nucleated ice at temperatures very close to the homogeneous nucleation temperature for the nucleation medium – which for artificial seawater was –42.2±0.3°C. Our results suggest that immersion freezing of these marine psychro-active bacteria and viruses would not be important for heterogeneous ice nucleation processes in polar clouds or to the formation of sea ice. These results also suggested that avoidance of ice formation in close proximity to cell surfaces might be one of the cold-adaptation and survival strategies for sea-ice bacteria. The fact that INA occurs at such low temperature could constitute one factor that explains the persistence of metabolic activities at temperatures far below the freezing point of seawater.

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Topics: Ice nucleus (70%), Sea ice (69%), Arctic ice pack (67%) ... show more

3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5194/ACP-21-11613-2021
Markus Hartmann1, Xianda Gong1, Xianda Gong2, Simonas Kecorius1  +10 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: . Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) initiate the primary ice formation in clouds at temperatures above ca. −38 ∘ C and have an impact on precipitation formation, cloud optical properties, and cloud persistence. Despite their roles in both weather and climate, INPs are not well characterized, especially in remote regions such as the Arctic. We present results from a ship-based campaign to the European Arctic during May to July 2017. We deployed a filter sampler and a continuous-flow diffusion chamber for offline and online INP analyses, respectively. We also investigated the ice nucleation properties of samples from different environmental compartments, i.e., the sea surface microlayer (SML), the bulk seawater (BSW), and fog water. Concentrations of INPs ( NINP ) in the air vary between 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes at any particular temperature and are, except for the temperatures above −10 ∘ C and below −32 ∘ C, lower than in midlatitudes. In these temperature ranges, INP concentrations are the same or even higher than in the midlatitudes. By heating of the filter samples to 95 ∘ C for 1 h, we found a significant reduction in ice nucleation activity, i.e., indications that the INPs active at warmer temperatures are biogenic. At colder temperatures the INP population was likely dominated by mineral dust. The SML was found to be enriched in INPs compared to the BSW in almost all samples. The enrichment factor (EF) varied mostly between 1 and 10, but EFs as high as 94.97 were also observed. Filtration of the seawater samples with 0.2 µ m syringe filters led to a significant reduction in ice activity, indicating the INPs are larger and/or are associated with particles larger than 0.2 µ m. A closure study showed that aerosolization of SML and/or seawater alone cannot explain the observed airborne NINP unless significant enrichment of INP by a factor of 105 takes place during the transfer from the ocean surface to the atmosphere. In the fog water samples with −3.47 ∘ C, we observed the highest freezing onset of any sample. A closure study connecting NINP in fog water and the ambient NINP derived from the filter samples shows good agreement of the concentrations in both compartments, which indicates that INPs in the air are likely all activated into fog droplets during fog events. In a case study, we considered a situation during which the ship was located in the marginal sea ice zone and NINP levels in air and the SML were highest in the temperature range above −10 ∘ C. Chlorophyll a measurements by satellite remote sensing point towards the waters in the investigated region being biologically active. Similar slopes in the temperature spectra suggested a connection between the INP populations in the SML and the air. Air mass history had no influence on the observed airborne INP population. Therefore, we conclude that during the case study collected airborne INPs originated from a local biogenic probably marine source.

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Topics: Sea ice (54%), Ice nucleus (52%), Population (51%) ... show more

2 Citations


99 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5194/ACP-5-715-2005
Ulrike Lohmann, Johann Feichter1Institutions (1)
Abstract: . Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect) of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

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Topics: Twomey effect (63%), Aerosol (51%)

2,208 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMICB.2018.00001
Abstract: In the 2016/2017 winter season in Japan, HuNoV GII.P16-GII.2 strains (2016 strains) emerged and caused large outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. To better understand the outbreaks, we examined the molecular evolution of the VP1 gene and RdRp region in 2016 strains from patients by studying their time-scale evolutionary phylogeny, positive/negative selection, conformational epitopes, and phylodynamics. The time-scale phylogeny suggested that the common ancestors of the 2016 strains VP1 gene and RdRp region diverged in 2006 and 1999, respectively, and that the 2016 strain was the progeny of a pre-2016 GII.2. The evolutionary rates of the VP1 gene and RdRp region were around 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Amino acid substitutions (position 341) in an epitope in the P2 domain of 2016 strains were not found in pre-2016 GII.2 strains. Bayesian skyline plot analyses showed that the effective population size of the VP1 gene in GII.2 strains was almost constant for those 50 years, although the number of patients with NoV GII.2 increased in 2016. The 2016 strain may be involved in future outbreaks in Japan and elsewhere.

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1,099 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.255.5051.1561
20 Mar 1992-Science
Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the largest reservoir of reduced carbon in the oceans. The nature of DOM is poorly understood, in part, because it has been difficult to isolate sufficient amounts of representative material for analysis. Tangential-flow ultrafiltration was shown to recover milligram amounts of >1000 daltons of DOM from seawater collected at three depths in the North Pacific Ocean. These isolates represented 22 to 33 percent of the total DOM and included essentially all colloidal material. The elemental, carbohydrate, and carbon-type (by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance) compositions of the isolates indicated that the relative abundance of polysaccharides was high (∼50 percent) in surface water and decreased to ∼25 percent in deeper samples. Polysaccharides thus appear to be more abundant and reactive components of seawater DOM than has been recognized.

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Topics: Dissolved organic carbon (55%), Seawater (53%)

868 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0910818107
Abstract: Knowledge of cloud and precipitation formation processes remains incomplete, yet global precipitation is predominantly produced by clouds containing the ice phase. Ice first forms in clouds warmer than -36 °C on particles termed ice nuclei. We combine observations from field studies over a 14-year period, from a variety of locations around the globe, to show that the concentrations of ice nuclei active in mixed-phase cloud conditions can be related to temperature and the number concentrations of particles larger than 0.5 μm in diameter. This new relationship reduces unexplained variability in ice nuclei concentrations at a given temperature from ∼103 to less than a factor of 10, with the remaining variability apparently due to variations in aerosol chemical composition or other factors. When implemented in a global climate model, the new parameterization strongly alters cloud liquid and ice water distributions compared to the simple, temperature-only parameterizations currently widely used. The revised treatment indicates a global net cloud radiative forcing increase of ∼1 W m-2 for each order of magnitude increase in ice nuclei concentrations, demonstrating the strong sensitivity of climate simulations to assumptions regarding the initiation of cloud glaciation.

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Topics: Ice nucleus (65%), Sea ice growth processes (65%), Ice-albedo feedback (64%) ... show more

846 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3402/TELLUSB.V64I0.15598
22 Feb 2012-Tellus B
Abstract: Atmospheric aerosol particles of biological origin are a very diverse group of biological materials and structures, including microorganisms, dispersal units, fragments and excretions of biological organisms. In recent years, the impact of biological aerosol particles on atmospheric processes has been studied with increasing intensity, and a wealth of new information and insights has been gained. This review outlines the current knowledge on major categories of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP): bacteria and archaea, fungal spores and fragments, pollen, viruses, algae and cyanobacteria, biological crusts and lichens and others like plant or animal fragments and detritus. We give an overview of sampling methods and physical, chemical and biological techniques for PBAP analysis (cultivation, microscopy, DNA/RNA analysis, chemical tracers, optical and mass spectrometry, etc.). Moreover, we address and summarise the current understanding and open questions concerning the influence of PBAP on the atmosphere and climate, i.e. their optical properties and their ability to act as ice nuclei (IN) or cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We suggest that the following research activities should be pursued in future studies of atmospheric biological aerosol particles: (1) develop efficient and reliable analytical techniques for the identification and quantification of PBAP; (2) apply advanced and standardised techniques to determine the abundance and diversity of PBAP and their seasonal variation at regional and global scales (atmospheric biogeography); (3) determine the emission rates, optical properties, IN and CCN activity of PBAP in field measurements and laboratory experiments; (4) use field and laboratory data to constrain numerical models of atmospheric transport, transformation and climate effects of PBAP. Keywords: primary biological atmospheric aerosol; climate; cloud condensation nuclei; biology; atmospheric ice nuclei (Published: 22 February 2012) Citation: Tellus B 2012, 64 , 15598, DOI: 10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.15598

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832 Citations

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