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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRTOX.2021.02.008

Excessive use of disinfectants against COVID-19 posing a potential threat to living beings

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 2, pp 159-168
Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019 and identified as a novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On January 30, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus outbreak a global public health emergency. The rapid spread of the pathogen across the communities shock the entire population. As no existing therapy were available during the pandemic. Health professionals recommended frequent washing of hands with soap and alcohol-based sanitizers. Disinfectants were extensively sprayed to minimize the possibility of getting COVID-19. Despite the potential benefits of these germicidal agents against COVID-19. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers lead to dry skin, infection, and alcohol poisoning. Children are considered more prone to alcohol poisoning and other major health concern. Precautionary measures should be ensured to protect the community from the possible risk associated with disinfectants.

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Topics: Public health (51%)
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Open access
01 Jan 1999-

149 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-14429-W
Kuldeep Dhama1, Shailesh Kumar Patel1, Rakesh Kumar2, Rupali Masand2  +11 moreInstitutions (9)
Abstract: Disinfectants and sanitizers are essential preventive agents against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, the pandemic crisis was marred by undue hype, which led to the indiscriminate use of disinfectants and sanitizers. Despite demonstrating a beneficial role in the control and prevention of COVID-19, there are crucial concerns regarding the large-scale use of disinfectants and sanitizers, including the side effects on human and animal health along with harmful impacts exerted on the environment and ecological balance. This article discusses the roles of disinfectants and sanitizers in the control and prevention of the current pandemic and highlights updated disinfection techniques against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This article provides evidence of the deleterious effects of disinfectants and sanitizers exerted on humans, animals, and the environment as well as suggests mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. Additionally, potential technologies and approaches for the reduction of these effects and the development of safe, affordable, and effective disinfectants are discussed, particularly, eco-friendly technologies using nanotechnology and nanomedicine.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/5524098
Zafran Khan1, Zafran Khan2, Zafran Khan3, Daniya Ualiyeva2  +7 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Air pollution (AP) is one of the leading causes of health risks because it causes widespread morbidity and mortality every year. Its impact on the environment includes acid rain and decreased visibility, but more importantly, it also has an impact on human health. The rise of COVID-19 demonstrates the cost of failing to manage AP. COVID-19 can be spread through the air, and atmospheric particulate matters (PMs) can create a good atmosphere for the long-distance spread of the virus. Moreover, these PMs can cause lung cell inflammation, thereby increasing sensitivity and the severity of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we emphasized the potential role of PMs in the spread of COVID-19. The relationship among COVID-19, PMs, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (receptor involved in virus entry into lung cells and inflammation) was also summarized.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADHM.202100722
Zhaohua Miao1, Yanbin Sun1, Zhenchao Tao2, Yu Chen2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Iodophor (povidone-iodine) has been widely used for antibacterial applications in the clinic. Yet, limited progress in the field of iodine-based bactericides has been achieved since the invention of iodophor. Herein, a blue polyvinyl alcohol-iodine (PAI) complex-based antibacterial hydrogel is explored as a new generation of biocompatible iodine-based bactericides. The obtained PAI hydrogel maintains laser triggered liquefaction, thermochromic, and photothermal features for highly efficient elimination of bacteria. In vitro antibacterial test reveals that the relative bacteria viabilities of Escherichia coli (E.coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incubated with PAI hydrogel are only 8% and 3.8%, respectively. Upon single injection of the PAI hydrogel, MRSA-infected open wounds can be efficiently healed in only 5 days, and the healing speed is further accelerated by laser irradiation due to the dynamic interaction between iodine and polyvinyl alcohol, causing up to ∼29% of wound area being closed on day 1. In addition, a safe threshold temperature of skin scald (∼45 °C) emerges for PAI hydrogels because of thermochromic properties, avoiding thermal injuries during irradiation. In addition, no observed toxicity or skin irritation is observed for the PAI hydrogel. This work expands the category of iodine-based bactericides for safe and controllable management of infected wounds.

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Topics: Iodophor (56%), Self-healing hydrogels (52%)

1 Citations



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106 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/CMR.12.1.147
Gerald Mcdonnell, A. Denver Russell1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications A wide variety of active chemical agents (biocides) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants Known mechanisms of microbial resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports

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3,797 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2020.105924
Chih-Cheng Lai, Tzu Ping Shih, Wen Chien Ko1, Hung-Jen Tang  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24-3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.

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Topics: Pneumonia (59%), Outbreak (50%)

3,083 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHIN.2020.01.022
Abstract: Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g. in healthcare facilities. The analysis of 22 studies reveals that human coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective. As no specific therapies are available for SARS-CoV-2, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial to stop the ongoing outbreak and to control this novel infectious thread.

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2,123 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-52748-8
Daniel Conroy-Beam1, David M. Buss2, Kelly Asao2, Agnieszka Sorokowska3  +108 moreInstitutions (59)
15 Nov 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Humans express a wide array of ideal mate preferences. Around the world, people desire romantic partners who are intelligent, healthy, kind, physically attractive, wealthy, and more. In order for these ideal preferences to guide the choice of actual romantic partners, human mating psychology must possess a means to integrate information across these many preference dimensions into summaries of the overall mate value of their potential mates. Here we explore the computational design of this mate preference integration process using a large sample of n = 14,487 people from 45 countries around the world. We combine this large cross-cultural sample with agent-based models to compare eight hypothesized models of human mating markets. Across cultures, people higher in mate value appear to experience greater power of choice on the mating market in that they set higher ideal standards, better fulfill their preferences in choice, and pair with higher mate value partners. Furthermore, we find that this cross-culturally universal pattern of mate choice is most consistent with a Euclidean model of mate preference integration.

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Topics: Mate choice (55%), Preference (55%), Sexual selection (50%)

1,812 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1983-
Abstract: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation , Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز

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1,741 Citations