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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSNANO.0C10689

Microbubbles versus Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutic Cargo for Targeting Drug Delivery.

05 Mar 2021-ACS Nano (American Chemical Society (ACS))-Vol. 15, Iss: 3, pp 3612-3620
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and microbubbles are nanoparticles in drug-delivery systems that are both considered important for clinical translation. Current research has found that both microbubbles and EVs have the potential to be utilized as drug-delivery agents for therapeutic targets in various diseases. In combination with EVs, microbubbles are capable of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor sites and neighboring sites of damaged tissues. However, there are no standards to evaluate or to compare the benefits of EVs (natural carrier) versus microbubbles (synthetic carrier) as drug carriers. Both drug carriers are being investigated for release patterns and for pharmacokinetics; however, few researchers have focused on their targeted delivery or efficacy. In this Perspective, we compare EVs and microbubbles for a better understanding of their utility in terms of delivering drugs to their site of action and future clinical translation.

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Topics: Microbubbles (56%), Drug delivery (51%)
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11 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRANON.2021.101095
Nagavalli Pillalamarri1, Abdullah1, Gang Ren1, Luqman Khan2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as potential mediators of intercellular communication. EVs are nano-sized, lipid membrane-bound vesicles that contains biological information in the form of proteins, metabolites and/or nucleic acids. EVs are key regulators of tissue repair mechanisms, such as in the context of lung injuries. Recent studies suggest that EVs have the ability to repair COVID19-associated acute lung damage. EVs hold great promise for therapeutic treatments, particularly in treating a potentially fatal autoimmune response and attenuate inflammation. They are known to boost lung immunity and are involved in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, including viral infection. EV-based immunization technology has been proven to elicit robust immune responses in many models of infectious disease, including COVID-19. The field of EV research has tremendous potential in advancing our understanding about viral infection pathogenesis, and can be translated into anti-viral therapeutic strategies.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.18632/ONCOTARGET.27927
25 May 2021-Oncotarget
Abstract: In the field of medicine, technological discovery is a vital way to bridge knowledge gaps and equip us with the know-how to address biological challenges. Innovative technologies allow us to work faster and better understand complexities, especially pertaining to human health and disease [1–3]. Computer simulation and artificial intelligence play a significant role in the timely diagnosis and effective treatment of complex ailments such as cancer [2–5]. The inquisition towards developing and acquiring new technologies is quintessential in the journey towards improving the quality of patient care. The advent of advanced exosome purification methods has made it possible to tap on the unexplored potential of these tiny particles in clinically-precise diagnosis and treatment of a myriad of diseases [6–8]. More efforts are currently being funneled into research and development endeavors in order to increase the quality and reach of exosomes-based diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the near future. Exosomes are small nano-particles made by cells within our body [8–10]. They contain crucial information by way of proteins, metabolites, and nucleic acids, facilitating cell-cell communication cells [8–10]. Structurally, exosomes are surrounded by lipid bilayers, which provides a robust layer of protection to the biological contents stored within [10]. The abundance of adhesive and surface proteins found on the surface of exosomes readily interact with the cellular membrane of target cells, allowing exosomes to essentially be vehicles to deliver cargo such as drugs [10–12]. The innovative use of exosomes as drug delivery systems for small molecules, cytokines, and other biological components makes them an ideal choice for clinical use [13]. In addition, the recent COVID19 pandemic has opened up new opportunities for exosome technology to benefit humankind. In the realm of vaccine development, Editorial

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Topics: Exosome (56%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13578-021-00623-3
09 Jun 2021-Cell & Bioscience
Abstract: Microbubbles are nanosized gas-filled bubbles. They are used in clinical diagnostics, in medical imaging, as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging, and as transporters for targeted drug delivery. They can also be used to treat thrombosis, neoplastic diseases, open arteries and vascular plaques and for localized transport of chemotherapies in cancer patients. Microbubbles can be filled with any type of therapeutics, cure agents, growth factors, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, miRNAs, and drugs. Microbubbles protect their cargo from immune attack because of their specialized encapsulated shell composed of lipid and protein. Filled with curative medicine, they could effectively circulate through the whole body safely and efficiently to reach the target area. The advanced bubble-based drug-delivery system, integrated with artificial intelligence for guidance, holds great promise for the targeted delivery of drugs and medicines.

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Topics: Microbubbles (57%), Targeted drug delivery (50%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.734720
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great promise as therapeutic modalities due to their endogenous characteristics, however, further bioengineering refinement is required to address clinical and commercial limitations. Clinical applications of EV-based therapeutics are being trialed in immunomodulation, tissue regeneration and recovery, and as delivery vectors for combination therapies. Native/biological EVs possess diverse endogenous properties that offer stability and facilitate crossing of biological barriers for delivery of molecular cargo to cells, acting as a form of intercellular communication to regulate function and phenotype. Moreover, EVs are important components of paracrine signaling in stem/progenitor cell-based therapies, are employed as standalone therapies, and can be used as a drug delivery system. Despite remarkable utility of native/biological EVs, they can be improved using bio/engineering approaches to further therapeutic potential. EVs can be engineered to harbor specific pharmaceutical content, enhance their stability, and modify surface epitopes for improved tropism and targeting to cells and tissues in vivo. Limitations currently challenging the full realization of their therapeutic utility include scalability and standardization of generation, molecular characterization for design and regulation, therapeutic potency assessment, and targeted delivery. The fields' utilization of advanced technologies (imaging, quantitative analyses, multi-omics, labeling/live-cell reporters), and utility of biocompatible natural sources for producing EVs (plants, bacteria, milk) will play an important role in overcoming these limitations. Advancements in EV engineering methodologies and design will facilitate the development of EV-based therapeutics, revolutionizing the current pharmaceutical landscape.

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Topics: Extracellular vesicle (54%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/IJN.S313912
Qi Li1, Suna Cai1, Mengjiao Li1, Kab Ibrahim Salma1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Nowadays, tumor has been the serious threat to human health and life. To further explore the mechanism of tumor genesis and development is necessarily for developing the effective treatment strategy. Extracellular vesicles are the vesicles secreted by almost all types of cells, and they play an important part in intercellular communication by transporting their cargoes. Immune cells are the vital components of the human defense system, which defense against infection and tumor through cytotoxicity, immune surveillance, and clearance. However, via release tumor-derived extracellular vesicles, tumor could induce immune cells dysfunction to facilitate its proliferation and metastasis. Studies have shown that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles play dual role on immune cells by their specific cargoes. Here, we reviewed the effects of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles on immune cells in recent years and also summarized their research progress in the tumor immunotherapy and diagnosis.

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Topics: Immune system (56%), Tumor-Derived (55%), Immunotherapy (54%)

2 Citations


References
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77 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2016.01.043
Mercedes Tkach1, Clotilde Théry1Institutions (1)
10 Mar 2016-Cell
Abstract: In multicellular organisms, distant cells can exchange information by sending out signals composed of single molecules or, as increasingly exemplified in the literature, via complex packets stuffed with a selection of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, called extracellular vesicles (EVs; also known as exosomes and microvesicles, among other names). This Review covers some of the most striking functions described for EV secretion but also presents the limitations on our knowledge of their physiological roles. While there are initial indications that EV-mediated pathways operate in vivo, the actual nature of the EVs involved in these effects still needs to be clarified. Here, we focus on the context of tumor cells and their microenvironment, but similar results and challenges apply to all patho/physiological systems in which EV-mediated communication is proposed to take place.

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Topics: Microvesicles (51%)

1,646 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1124/PR.112.005983
Abstract: Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells release small, phospholipid-enclosed vesicles into their environment. Why do cells release vesicles? Initial studies showed that eukaryotic vesicles are used to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Although this release of vesicles is beneficial to the cell, the vesicles can also be a danger to their environment, for instance in blood, where vesicles can provide a surface supporting coagulation. Evidence is accumulating that vesicles are cargo containers used by eukaryotic cells to exchange biomolecules as transmembrane receptors and genetic information. Because also bacteria communicate to each other via extracellular vesicles, the intercellular communication via extracellular cargo carriers seems to be conserved throughout evolution, and therefore vesicles are likely to be a highly efficient, robust, and economic manner of exchanging information between cells. Furthermore, vesicles protect cells from accumulation of waste or drugs, they contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications, ranging from biomarkers to anticancer therapy. Because vesicles may pass the blood-brain barrier, they can perhaps even be considered naturally occurring liposomes. Unfortunately, pathways of vesicle release and vesicles themselves are also being used by tumors and infectious diseases to facilitate spreading, and to escape from immune surveillance. In this review, the different types, nomenclature, functions, and clinical relevance of vesicles will be discussed.

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Topics: Vesicle (58%), Microvesicles (54%), Cell-Derived Microparticles (52%)

1,174 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/MT.2011.164
Xiaoying Zhuang1, Xiaoyu Xiang2, William E. Grizzle3, Dongmei Sun3  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Oct 2011-Molecular Therapy
Abstract: In this study, exosomes used to encapsulate curcumin (Exo-cur) or a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibitor, i.e., JSI124 (Exo-JSI124) were delivered noninvasively to microglia cells via an intranasal route. The results generated from three inflammation-mediated disease models, i.e., a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis and a GL26 brain tumor model, showed that mice treated intranasally with Exo-cur or Exo-JSI124 are protected from LPS-induced brain inflammation, the progression of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and had significantly delayed brain tumor growth in the GL26 tumor model. Intranasal administration of Exo-cur or Exo-JSI124 led to rapid delivery of exosome encapsulated drug to the brain that was selectively taken up by microglial cells, and subsequently induced apoptosis of microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that this strategy may provide a noninvasive and novel therapeutic approach for treating brain inflammatory-related diseases.

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817 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11060-013-1084-8
Johnny C. Akers1, David D. Gonda1, Ryan Y. Kim1, Bob S. Carter1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Recent studies suggest both normal and cancerous cells secrete vesicles into the extracellular space. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain materials that mirror the genetic and proteomic content of the secreting cell. The identification of cancer-specific material in EVs isolated from the biofluids (e.g., serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine) of cancer patients suggests EVs as an attractive platform for biomarker development. It is important to recognize that the EVs derived from clinical samples are likely highly heterogeneous in make-up and arose from diverse sets of biologic processes. This article aims to review the biologic processes that give rise to various types of EVs, including exosomes, microvesicles, retrovirus like particles, and apoptotic bodies. Clinical pertinence of these EVs to neuro-oncology will also be discussed.

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Topics: Microvesicles (58%)

743 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRD1417
Jonathan R. Lindner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Not all bubbles in the bloodstream are detrimental. During the past decade, contrast-enhanced ultrasound has evolved from a purely investigational tool to a routine diagnostic technique. This transformation has been facilitated by advances in the microbubble contrast agents and contrast-specific ultrasound imaging techniques. The ability to non-invasively image molecular events with targeted microbubbles is likely to be important for characterizing pathophysiology and for developing new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases.

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Topics: Microbubbles (55%)

742 Citations


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202111