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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.03.02.433390

Vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and AS03 Adjuvant Induces Rapid Anamnestic Antibodies in the Lung and Protects Against Virus Challenge in Nonhuman Primates

02 Mar 2021-bioRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)-
Abstract: Adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines have been used extensively in humans for protection against various viral infections based on their robust induction of antibody responses. Here, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike trimers (preS dTM) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to nonhuman primates (NHP). Binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology revealed that NHP developed AS03-dependent multi-functional humoral responses that targeted multiple spike domains and bound to a variety of antibody F C receptors mediating effector functions in vitro . Pseudovirus and live virus neutralizing IC 50 titers were on average greater than 1000 and significantly higher than a panel of human convalescent sera. NHP were challenged intranasally and intratracheally with a high dose (3×10 6 PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020 isolate). Two days post-challenge, vaccinated NHP showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. Notably, vaccinated NHP also had increased spike-specific IgG antibody responses in the lung as early as 2 days post challenge. Moreover, vaccine-induced IgG mediated protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge following passive transfer to hamsters. These data show that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine are sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 and support the evaluation of this vaccine in human clinical trials.

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Topics: Antibody (50%)
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12 results found


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.20.440647
Kizzmekia S. Corbett1, Martha Nason1, Britta Flach1, Matthew Gagne1  +59 moreInstitutions (3)
21 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. The nonhuman primate (NHP) model of SARS-CoV-2 infection replicates key features of human infection and may be used to define immune correlates of protection following vaccination. Here, NHP received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 – 100 μg of mRNA-1273, a mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P) protein encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle. mRNA-1273 vaccination elicited robust circulating and mucosal antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Viral replication was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavages and nasal swabs following SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vaccinated animals and was most strongly correlated with levels of anti-S antibody binding and neutralizing activity. Consistent with antibodies being a correlate of protection, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to naive hamsters was sufficient to mediate protection. Taken together, these data show that mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced humoral immune responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP. One-Sentence Summary mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP.

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Topics: Vaccination (54%), Immune system (53%), Antibody (52%) ... show more

28 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABJ0299
Kizzmekia S. Corbett1, Martha Nason1, Britta Flach1, Matthew Gagne1  +60 moreInstitutions (3)
17 Sep 2021-Science
Abstract: Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. Here, nonhuman primates (NHPs) received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 to 100 μg of the mRNA-12...

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (62%), Vaccination (54%), Vaccine Potency (52%)

28 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MBIO.00765-21
Harini Natarajan1, Andrew R. Crowley1, Savannah E. Butler1, Shiwei Xu1  +21 moreInstitutions (4)
20 Apr 2021-Mbio
Abstract: Convalescent plasma is a promising therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the antibody characteristics that contribute to efficacy remain poorly understood. This study analyzed plasma samples from 126 eligible convalescent blood donors in addition to 15 naive individuals, as well as an additional 20 convalescent individuals as a validation cohort. Multiplexed Fc Array binding assays and functional antibody response assays were utilized to evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody composition and activity. Donor convalescent plasma samples contained a range of antibody cell- and complement-mediated effector functions, indicating the diverse antiviral activity of humoral responses observed among recovered individuals. In addition to viral neutralization, convalescent plasma samples contained antibodies capable of mediating such Fc-dependent functions as complement activation, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against SARS-CoV-2. Plasma samples from a fraction of eligible donors exhibited high activity across all activities evaluated. These polyfunctional plasma samples could be identified with high accuracy with even single Fc Array features, whose correlation with polyfunctional activity was confirmed in the validation cohort. Collectively, these results expand understanding of the diversity of antibody-mediated antiviral functions associated with convalescent plasma, and the polyfunctional antiviral functions suggest that it could retain activity even when its neutralizing capacity is reduced by mutations in variant SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE Convalescent plasma has been deployed globally as a treatment for COVID-19, but efficacy has been mixed. Better understanding of the antibody characteristics that may contribute to its antiviral effects is important for this intervention as well as offer insights into correlates of vaccine-mediated protection. Here, a survey of convalescent plasma activities, including antibody neutralization and diverse effector functions, was used to define plasma samples with broad activity profiles. These polyfunctional plasma samples could be reliably identified in multiple cohorts by multiplex assay, presenting a widely deployable screening test for plasma selection and investigation of vaccine-elicited responses.

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Topics: Antibody (54%)

12 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.21.445189
24 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: BackgroundVaccine efficacy against the B.1.351 variant following mRNA-1273 vaccination in humans has not been determined. Nonhuman primates (NHP) are a useful model for demonstrating whether mRNA-1273 mediates protection against B.1.351. MethodsNonhuman primates received 30 or 100 {micro}g of mRNA-1273 as a prime-boost vaccine at 0 and 4 weeks, a single immunization of 30 {micro}g at week 0, or no vaccine. Antibody and T cell responses were assessed in blood, bronchioalveolar lavages (BAL), and nasal washes. Viral replication in BAL and nasal swabs were determined by qRT-PCR for sgRNA, and histopathology and viral antigen quantification were performed on lung tissue post-challenge. ResultsEight weeks post-boost, 100 {micro}g x2 of mRNA-1273 induced reciprocal ID50 neutralizing geometric mean titers against live SARS-CoV-2 D614G and B.1.351 of 3300 and 240, respectively, and 430 and 84 for the 30 {micro}g x2 group. There were no detectable neutralizing antibodies against B.1351 after the single immunization of 30 {micro}g. On day 2 following B.1.351 challenge, sgRNA in BAL was undetectable in 6 of 8 NHP that received 100 {micro}g x2 of mRNA-1273, and there was a [~]2-log reduction in sgRNA in NHP that received two doses of 30 {micro}g compared to controls. In nasal swabs, there was a 1-log10 reduction observed in the 100 {micro}g x2 group. There was limited inflammation or viral antigen in lungs of vaccinated NHP post-challenge. ConclusionsImmunization with two doses of mRNA-1273 achieves effective immunity that rapidly controls lower and upper airway viral replication against the B.1.351 variant in NHP.

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6 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.05.451222
Wan-ting He1, Meng Yuan1, Sean Callaghan1, Rami Musharrafieh1  +35 moreInstitutions (4)
06 Jul 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: To prepare for future coronavirus (CoV) pandemics, it is desirable to generate vaccines capable of eliciting neutralizing antibody responses against multiple CoVs. Because of the phylogenetic similarity to humans, rhesus macaques are an animal model of choice for many virus-challenge and vaccine-evaluation studies, including SARS-CoV-2. Here, we show that immunization of macaques with SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein generates potent receptor binding domain cross- neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1, in contrast to human infection or vaccination where responses are typically SARS-CoV-2-specific. Furthermore, the macaque nAbs are equally effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Structural studies show that different immunodominant sites are targeted by the two primate species. Human antibodies generally target epitopes strongly overlapping the ACE2 receptor binding site (RBS), whereas the macaque antibodies recognize a relatively conserved region proximal to the RBS that represents another potential pan-SARS-related virus site rarely targeted by human antibodies. B cell repertoire differences between the two primates appear to significantly influence the vaccine response and suggest care in the use of rhesus macaques in evaluation of vaccines to SARS-related viruses intended for human use. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY Broadly neutralizing antibodies to an unappreciated site of conservation in the RBD in SARS- related viruses can be readily induced in rhesus macaques because of distinct properties of the naive macaque B cell repertoire that suggest prudence in the use of the macaque model in SARS vaccine evaluation and design.

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Topics: Macaque (63%), Neutralizing antibody (57.99%), Vaccine evaluation (56%)

5 Citations


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92 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.052
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

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Topics: Proteases (52%)

10,193 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB2507
13 Mar 2020-Science
Abstract: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure development, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) rotated up in a receptor-accessible conformation. We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S. Additionally, we tested several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies and found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs. The structure of 2019-nCoV S should enable the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.

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5,197 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2034577
Abstract: Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a world...

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4,222 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1093616
05 Mar 2004-Science
Abstract: Interferons (IFNs) are critical for protection from viral infection, but the pathways linking virus recognition to IFN induction remain poorly understood. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells produce vast amounts of IFN-alpha in response to the wild-type influenza virus. Here, we show that this requires endosomal recognition of influenza genomic RNA and signaling by means of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and MyD88. Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of nonviral origin also induce TLR7-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines. These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses.

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Topics: RIG-I-like receptor (60%), Orthomyxoviridae (59%), TLR7 (56.99%) ... show more

3,263 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1
Merryn Voysey1, Clemens Sac.1, Shabir A. Madhi, Lily Yin Weckx2  +78 moreInstitutions (30)
09 Jan 2021-The Lancet
Abstract: Background A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials. Methods This analysis includes data from four ongoing blinded, randomised, controlled trials done across the UK, Brazil, and South Africa. Participants aged 18 years and older were randomly assigned (1:1) to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or control (meningococcal group A, C, W, and Y conjugate vaccine or saline). Participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group received two doses containing 5 × 1010 viral particles (standard dose; SD/SD cohort); a subset in the UK trial received a half dose as their first dose (low dose) and a standard dose as their second dose (LD/SD cohort). The primary efficacy analysis included symptomatic COVID-19 in seronegative participants with a nucleic acid amplification test-positive swab more than 14 days after a second dose of vaccine. Participants were analysed according to treatment received, with data cutoff on Nov 4, 2020. Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 1 - relative risk derived from a robust Poisson regression model adjusted for age. Studies are registered at ISRCTN89951424 and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606, NCT04400838, and NCT04444674. Findings Between April 23 and Nov 4, 2020, 23 848 participants were enrolled and 11 636 participants (7548 in the UK, 4088 in Brazil) were included in the interim primary efficacy analysis. In participants who received two standard doses, vaccine efficacy was 62·1% (95% CI 41·0–75·7; 27 [0·6%] of 4440 in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group vs71 [1·6%] of 4455 in the control group) and in participants who received a low dose followed by a standard dose, efficacy was 90·0% (67·4–97·0; three [0·2%] of 1367 vs 30 [2·2%] of 1374; pinteraction=0·010). Overall vaccine efficacy across both groups was 70·4% (95·8% CI 54·8–80·6; 30 [0·5%] of 5807 vs 101 [1·7%] of 5829). From 21 days after the first dose, there were ten cases hospitalised for COVID-19, all in the control arm; two were classified as severe COVID-19, including one death. There were 74 341 person-months of safety follow-up (median 3·4 months, IQR 1·3–4·8): 175 severe adverse events occurred in 168 participants, 84 events in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 91 in the control group. Three events were classified as possibly related to a vaccine: one in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, one in the control group, and one in a participant who remains masked to group allocation. Interpretation ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has an acceptable safety profile and has been found to be efficacious against symptomatic COVID-19 in this interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials.

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1,792 Citations


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202112