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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.602122

Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Activation and Dendritic Cell Transmigration Is Modified by Genetic Deletion of Clever-1.

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Immunology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 12, pp 602122-602122
Abstract: Clever-1 also known as Stabilin-1 and FEEL-1 is a scavenger molecule expressed on a subpopulation of anti-inflammatory macrophages and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). However, its role in regulating dendritic cell (DC) trafficking and subsequent effects on immunity have remained unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that DC trafficking from the skin into the draining lymph nodes is compromised in the absence of Clever-1. By adoptive transfer approaches we further show that the poor trafficking is due to the impaired entrance of DCs into afferent lymphatics. Despite this, injections of ovalbumin-loaded DCs into the footpads induced a stronger proliferative response of OT II T cells in the draining lymph nodes. This could be explained by the increased MHC II expression on DCs and a less tolerogenic phenotype of LECs in lymph nodes of Clever-1 knockout mice. Thus, although fewer DCs reach the nodes, they are more active in creating antigen-specific immune responses. This suggests that the DCs migrating to the draining lymph node within Clever-1 positive lymphatics experience immunosuppressive interactions with LECs. In conclusion, besides being a trafficking molecule on lymphatic vasculature Clever-1 is immunosuppressive towards migrating DCs and thus, regulates the magnitude of immune responses created by incoming DCs in the draining lymph nodes.

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Topics: Lymphatic system (57%), Dendritic cell (57%), Lymph node (56%) ... show more
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4862
Reetta Virtakoivu1, Jenna H. Rannikko1, Miro Viitala1, Felix Vaura1  +16 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Purpose: Macrophages are critical in driving an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that counteracts the efficacy of T-cell–targeting therapies. Thus, agents able to reprogram macrophages toward a proinflammatory state hold promise as novel immunotherapies for solid cancers. Inhibition of the macrophage scavenger receptor Clever-1 has shown benefit in inducing CD8+ T-cell–mediated antitumor responses in mouse models of cancer, which supports the clinical development of Clever-1–targeting antibodies for cancer treatment. Patients and Methods: In this study, we analyzed the mode of action of a humanized IgG4 anti–Clever-1 antibody, FP-1305 (bexmarilimab), both in vitro and in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic cancer (n = 30) participating in part 1 (dose-finding) of a phase I/II open-label trial (NCT03733990). We studied the Clever-1 interactome in primary human macrophages in antibody pull-down assays and utilized mass cytometry, RNA sequencing, and cytokine profiling to evaluate FP-1305–induced systemic immune activation in patients with cancer. Results: Our pull-down assays and functional studies indicated that FP-1305 impaired multiprotein vacuolar ATPase–mediated endosomal acidification and improved the ability of macrophages to activate CD8+ T-cells. In patients with cancer, FP-1305 administration led to suppression of nuclear lipid signaling pathways and a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in blood monocytes. These effects were accompanied by a significant increase and activation of peripheral T-cells with indications of antitumor responses in some patients. Conclusions: Our results reveal a nonredundant role played by the receptor Clever-1 in suppressing adaptive immune cells in humans. We provide evidence that targeting macrophage scavenging activity can promote an immune switch, potentially leading to intratumoral proinflammatory responses in patients with metastatic cancer.

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Topics: Proinflammatory cytokine (58%), Tumor microenvironment (56%), Cancer (54%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10051269
20 May 2021-Cells
Abstract: Afferent lymphatic vessels (LVs) mediate the transport of antigen and leukocytes to draining lymph nodes (dLNs), thereby serving as immunologic communication highways between peripheral tissues and LNs. The main cell types migrating via this route are antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and antigen-experienced T cells. While DC migration is important for maintenance of tolerance and for induction of protective immunity, T cell migration through afferent LVs contributes to immune surveillance. In recent years, great progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms of lymphatic migration. Specifically, time-lapse imaging has revealed that, upon entry into capillaries, both DCs and T cells are not simply flushed away with the lymph flow, but actively crawl and patrol and even interact with each other in this compartment. Detachment and passive transport to the dLN only takes place once the cells have reached the downstream, contracting collecting vessel segments. In this review, we describe how the anatomy of the lymphatic network supports leukocyte trafficking and provide updated knowledge regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for lymphatic migration of DCs and T cells. In addition, we discuss the relevance of DC and T cell migration through afferent LVs and its presumed implications on immunity.

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Topics: Dendritic cell (58%), T cell (56%), Lymphatic system (56%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10741-021-10188-5
Rui-Cheng Ji1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cardiac lymphangiogenesis plays an important physiological role in the regulation of interstitial fluid homeostasis, inflammatory, and immune responses. Impaired or excessive cardiac lymphatic remodeling and insufficient lymph drainage have been implicated in several cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of functional lymphatics are not fully understood, the interplay between lymphangiogenesis and immune regulation has recently been explored in relation to the initiation and development of these diseases. In this field, experimental therapeutic strategies targeting lymphangiogenesis have shown promise by reducing myocardial inflammation, edema and fibrosis, and improving cardiac function. On the other hand, however, whether lymphangiogenesis is beneficial or detrimental to cardiac transplant survival remains controversial. In the light of recent evidence, cardiac lymphangiogenesis, a thriving and challenging field has been summarized and discussed, which may improve our knowledge in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and transplant biology.

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Topics: Lymphangiogenesis (61%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SEMCANCER.2021.11.004
Hanxin Liu1, Huifang Zhao1, Yu Sun2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major contributor to cancer malignancy including development of therapeutic resistance, a process mediated in part through intercellular crosstalk. Besides diverse soluble factors responsible for pro-survival pathway activation, immune evasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling further promote cancer resistance. Importantly, therapy-induced senescence (TIS) of cells in the TME is frequently observed in anticancer regimens, an off-target effect that can generate profound impacts on disease progression. By conferring the resistance and fueling the repopulation of remaining cancerous cells, TIS is responsible for tumor relapse and distant metastasis in posttreatment stage. This pathological trajectory can be substantially driven by the pro-inflammatory feature of senescent cells, termed as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Targeting strategies to selectively and efficiently remove senescent cells before they exert non-autonomous but largely deleterious effects, are emerging as an effective solution to prevent drug resistance acquired from a treatment-remodeled TME. In this review, we summarize the TME composition and key activities that affect tissue homeostasis and support treatment resistance. Promising opportunities that allow TME-manipulation and senescent cell-targeting (senotherapy) are discussed, with translational pipelines to overcome therapeutic barriers in clinical oncology projected.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/IMR.13030
Abstract: Afferent lymphatics mediate the transport of antigen and leukocytes, especially of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, from peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes (dLNs). As such they play important roles in the induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. Over the past 15 years, great advances in our understanding of leukocyte trafficking through afferent lymphatics have been made through time-lapse imaging studies performed in tissue explants and in vivo, allowing to visualize this process with cellular resolution. Intravital imaging has revealed that intralymphatic leukocytes continue to actively migrate once they have entered into lymphatic capillaries, as a consequence of the low flow conditions present in this compartment. In fact, leukocytes spend considerable time migrating, patrolling and interacting with the lymphatic endothelium or with other intralymphatic leukocytes within lymphatic capillaries. Cells typically only start to detach once they arrive in downstream-located collecting vessels, where vessel contractions contribute to enhanced lymph flow. In this review, we will introduce the biology of afferent lymphatic vessels and report on the presumed significance of DC and T cell migration via this route. We will specifically highlight how time-lapse imaging has contributed to the current model of lymphatic trafficking and the emerging notion that - besides transport - lymphatic capillaries exert additional roles in immune modulation.

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Topics: Lymphatic Endothelium (60%), Lymphatic system (59%), Leukocyte Trafficking (58%) ... show more
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41 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0022-1759(98)00204-X
Abstract: As dendritic cells (DC) are rare populations in all organs, their generation from hematopoietic precursors in large quantities has proven critical to study their biology. From murine bone marrow about 5 x 10(6) cells at 70% purity are obtained per mouse after 8 days of culture with GM-CSF. We have improved this standard method and routinely achieve a 50-fold higher yield, i.e., 1-3 x 10(8) immature and mature DC per mouse at 90-95% purity. The major modifications were: (i) the avoidance of any active depletion of bone marrow cell subpopulations to circumvent loss of precursors, (ii) a lower plating density of bone marrow cells, (iii) a prolonged culture period of 10-12 days, (iv) the reduction of the GM-CSF dose from day 8 or 10 onwards to reduce granulocyte contaminations. The final non-adherent population at day 10-12 constitutes a mixture of immature and mature DC. Further maturation of DC could be induced by high doses of LPS or TNF-alpha for the last 24 h, where 50-70% of the non-adherent fraction represented mature DC with high levels of NLDC-145, CD86 and CD40. This method allows by simple means the generation of high numbers of murine DC with very low B cell or granulocyte contaminations. It will be valuable to study DC biology notably at the molecular level.

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Topics: Bone marrow (56%), Dendritic cell (52%), Population (51%) ... show more

2,840 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE06887
Tim Lämmermann1, Bernhard L. Bader2, Susan J. Monkley3, Tim Worbs4  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
01 May 2008-Nature
Abstract: All metazoan cells carry transmembrane receptors of the integrin family, which couple the contractile force of the actomyosin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment In agreement with this principle, rapidly migrating leukocytes use integrin-mediated adhesion when moving over two-dimensional surfaces As migration on two-dimensional substrates naturally overemphasizes the role of adhesion, the contribution of integrins during three-dimensional movement of leukocytes within tissues has remained controversial We studied the interplay between adhesive, contractile and protrusive forces during interstitial leukocyte chemotaxis in vivo and in vitro We ablated all integrin heterodimers from murine leukocytes, and show here that functional integrins do not contribute to migration in three-dimensional environments Instead, these cells migrate by the sole force of actin-network expansion, which promotes protrusive flowing of the leading edge Myosin II-dependent contraction is only required on passage through narrow gaps, where a squeezing contraction of the trailing edge propels the rigid nucleus

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Topics: Leukocyte chemotaxis (58%), Leukocyte migration (57%), Integrin (55%) ... show more

1,166 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRI3298
Abstract: In search of foreign antigens, lymphocytes recirculate from the blood, through lymph nodes, into lymphatics and back to the blood. Dendritic cells also migrate to lymph nodes for optimal interaction with lymphocytes. This continuous trafficking of immune cells into and out of lymph nodes is essential for immune surveillance of foreign invaders. In this article, we review our current understanding of the functions of high endothelial venules (HEVs), stroma and lymphatics in the entry, positioning and exit of immune cells in lymph nodes during homeostasis, and we highlight the unexpected role of dendritic cells in the control of lymphocyte homing through HEVs.

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Topics: Lymph node stromal cell (67%), High endothelial venules (62%), Lymph (58%) ... show more

463 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2012.03.027
Melanie Greter1, Julie Helft1, Andrew Chow1, Daigo Hashimoto1  +15 moreInstitutions (2)
29 Jun 2012-Immunity
Abstract: GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103(+) DCs in some tissues. Here we showed that in contrast to the current understanding, Csf-2 receptor acts in the steady state to promote the survival and homeostasis of nonlymphoid tissue-resident CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs. Absence of Csf-2 receptor on lung DCs abrogated the induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity after immunization with particulate antigens. In contrast, Csf-2 receptor was dispensable for the differentiation and innate function of inflammatory DCs during acute injuries. Instead, inflammatory DCs required Csf-1 receptor for their development. Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo.

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Topics: Dendritic cell homeostasis (60%), CD8 (50%)

370 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1084/JEM.20092465
Jarish N. Cohen1, Cynthia J. Guidi1, Eric F. Tewalt1, Hui Qiao1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Peripheral immune tolerance is generally thought to result from cross-presentation of tissue-derived proteins by quiescent tissue-resident dendritic cells to self-reactive T cells that have escaped thymic negative selection, leading to anergy or deletion. Recently, we and others have implicated the lymph node (LN) stroma in mediating CD8 T cell peripheral tolerance. We demonstrate that LN-resident lymphatic endothelial cells express multiple peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) independent of the autoimmune regulator (Aire). They directly present an epitope derived from one of these, the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase, to tyrosinase-specific CD8 T cells, leading to their deletion. We also show that other LN stromal subpopulations express distinct PTAs by mechanisms that vary in their Aire dependence. These results establish lymphatic endothelial cells, and potentially other LN-resident cells, as systemic mediators of peripheral immune tolerance.

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Topics: Lymph node stromal cell (68%), Immune tolerance (66%), Peripheral tolerance (66%) ... show more

282 Citations


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20215