Abstract: Cardiac lymphangiogenesis plays an important physiological role in the regulation of interstitial fluid homeostasis, inflammatory, and immune responses. Impaired or excessive cardiac lymphatic remodeling and insufficient lymph drainage have been implicated in several cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of functional lymphatics are not fully understood, the interplay between lymphangiogenesis and immune regulation has recently been explored in relation to the initiation and development of these diseases. In this field, experimental therapeutic strategies targeting lymphangiogenesis have shown promise by reducing myocardial inflammation, edema and fibrosis, and improving cardiac function. On the other hand, however, whether lymphangiogenesis is beneficial or detrimental to cardiac transplant survival remains controversial. In the light of recent evidence, cardiac lymphangiogenesis, a thriving and challenging field has been summarized and discussed, which may improve our knowledge in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and transplant biology.
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