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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10030384

Translational Approaches with Antioxidant Phytochemicals against Alcohol-Mediated Oxidative Stress, Gut Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Fatty Liver Disease

04 Mar 2021-Antioxidants (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 10, Iss: 3, pp 384
Abstract: Emerging data demonstrate the important roles of altered gut microbiomes (dysbiosis) in many disease states in the peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Gut dysbiosis with decreased ratios of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and other changes are reported to be caused by many disease states and various environmental factors, such as ethanol (e.g., alcohol drinking), Western-style high-fat diets, high fructose, etc. It is also caused by genetic factors, including genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in different individuals. Gut dysbiosis, impaired intestinal barrier function, and elevated serum endotoxin levels can be observed in human patients and/or experimental rodent models exposed to these factors or with certain disease states. However, gut dysbiosis and leaky gut can be normalized through lifestyle alterations such as increased consumption of healthy diets with various fruits and vegetables containing many different kinds of antioxidant phytochemicals. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of gut dysbiosis, leaky gut, endotoxemia, and fatty liver disease with a specific focus on the alcohol-associated pathways. We also mention translational approaches by discussing the benefits of many antioxidant phytochemicals and/or their metabolites against alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and fatty liver disease.

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Topics: Dysbiosis (66%), Fatty liver (50%)

9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22158221
Abstract: CYP2E1 is one of the fifty-seven cytochrome P450 genes in the human genome and is highly conserved. CYP2E1 is a unique P450 enzyme because its heme iron is constitutively in the high spin state, allowing direct reduction of, e.g., dioxygen, causing the formation of a variety of reactive oxygen species and reduction of xenobiotics to toxic products. The CYP2E1 enzyme has been the focus of scientific interest due to (i) its important endogenous function in liver homeostasis, (ii) its ability to activate procarcinogens and to convert certain drugs, e.g., paracetamol and anesthetics, to cytotoxic end products, (iii) its unique ability to effectively reduce dioxygen to radical species causing liver injury, (iv) its capability to reduce compounds, often generating radical intermediates of direct toxic or indirect immunotoxic properties and (v) its contribution to the development of alcoholic liver disease, steatosis and NASH. In this overview, we present the discovery of the enzyme and studies in humans, 3D liver systems and genetically modified mice to disclose its function and clinical relevance. Induction of the CYP2E1 enzyme either by alcohol or high-fat diet leads to increased severity of liver pathology and likelihood to develop ALD and NASH, with subsequent influence on the occurrence of hepatocellular cancer. Thus, fat-dependent induction of the enzyme might provide a link between steatosis and fibrosis in the liver. We conclude that CYP2E1 has many important physiological functions and is a key enzyme for hepatic carcinogenesis, drug toxicity and liver disease.

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Topics: Alcoholic liver disease (62%), Fatty liver (57.99%), Liver disease (56.99%) ... show more

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13143548
F D Rodriguez1, Rafael Coveñas1Institutions (1)
15 Jul 2021-Cancers
Abstract: The World Health Organization identifies alcohol as a cause of several neoplasias of the oropharynx cavity, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, larynx, liver, or female breast. We review ethanol's nonoxidative and oxidative metabolism and one-carbon metabolism that encompasses both redox and transfer reactions that influence crucial cell proliferation machinery. Ethanol favors the uncontrolled production and action of free radicals, which interfere with the maintenance of essential cellular functions. We focus on the generation of protein, DNA, and lipid adducts that interfere with the cellular processes related to growth and differentiation. Ethanol's effects on stem cells, which are responsible for building and repairing tissues, are reviewed. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) of different origins suffer disturbances related to the expression of cell surface markers, enzymes, and transcription factors after ethanol exposure with the consequent dysregulation of mechanisms related to cancer metastasis or resistance to treatments. Our analysis aims to underline and discuss potential targets that show more sensitivity to ethanol's action and identify specific metabolic routes and metabolic realms that may be corrected to recover metabolic homeostasis after pharmacological intervention. Specifically, research should pay attention to re-establishing metabolic fluxes by fine-tuning the functioning of specific pathways related to one-carbon metabolism and antioxidant processes.

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Topics: Cancer stem cell (54%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIBIOTICS10050520
Abstract: Antibiotic monotherapy may become obsolete mainly due to the continuous emergence of resistance to available antimicrobials, which represents a major uncertainty to human health. Taking into account that natural products have been an inexhaustible source of new compounds with clinical application, lectins are certainly one of the most versatile groups of proteins used in biological processes, emerging as a promising alternative for therapy. The ability of lectins to recognize carbohydrates present on the cell surface allowed for the discovery of a wide range of activities. Currently the number of antimicrobials in research and development does not match the rate at which resistance mechanisms emerge to an effective antibiotic monotherapy. A promising therapeutic alternative is the combined therapy of antibiotics with lectins to enhance its spectrum of action, minimize adverse effects, and reduce resistance to treatments. Thus, this review provides an update on the experimental application of antibiotic therapies based on the synergic combination with lectins to treat infections specifically caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also briefly discuss current strategies involving the modulation of the gut microbiota, its implications for antimicrobial resistance, and highlight the potential of lectins to modulate the host immune response against oxidative stress.

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Topics: Antibiotic resistance (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10091386
Dong-ha Kim1, Yejin Sim1, Jin-hyeon Hwang1, In-Sook Kwun1  +9 moreInstitutions (6)
30 Aug 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major liver disease worldwide and can range from simple steatosis or inflammation to fibrosis/cirrhosis, possibly through leaky gut and systemic endotoxemia. Many patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) die within 60 days after clinical diagnosis due to the lack of an approved drug, and thus, synthetic and/or dietary agents to prevent ASH and premature deaths are urgently needed. We recently reported that a pharmacologically high dose of pomegranate extract prevented binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and hepatic inflammation by suppressing oxidative and nitrative stress. Herein, we investigate whether a dietary antioxidant ellagic acid (EA) contained in many fruits, including pomegranate and vegetables, can protect against binge alcohol-induced leaky gut, endotoxemia, and liver inflammation. Pretreatment with a physiologically-relevant dose of EA for 14 days significantly reduced the binge alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia, and inflammatory liver injury in mice by inhibiting gut dysbiosis and the elevated oxidative stress and apoptosis marker proteins. Pretreatment with EA significantly prevented the decreased amounts of gut tight junction/adherent junction proteins and the elevated gut leakiness in alcohol-exposed mice. Taken together, our results suggest that EA could be used as a dietary supplement for alcoholic hepatitis patients.

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Topics: Alcoholic liver disease (57.99%), Liver disease (53%), Gut flora (53%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PR9101828
Jayson M. Antonio1, Ailyn Fadriquela1, Yun Ju Jeong1, Cheol-Su Kim1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
14 Oct 2021-
Abstract: Redox imbalance in intestinal epithelial cells is critical in the early phases of intestinal injury. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier can result in immunological imbalance and inflammation, thus leading to intestinal syndromes and associated illnesses. Several antioxidants have been discovered to be beneficial in resolving intestinal barrier dysfunction. Of these antioxidants, the effects of alkaline reduced water (ARW) in oxidative stress of intestinal epithelial cells and its immunokine modulation in vitro is unknown. In this study, we utilized ARW-enriched media to investigate its cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in DLD1 cells. We found that ARW rescued DLD1 from oxidative stress by diluting the influence of H2O2 on oxidative stress-activated MAPK signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. Further, intestinal oxidative stress significantly affects immunokine profiles of Raw 264.7 cells (IL-6, IL-10, MCP, TNF-a, RANTES), which can be reversed by ARW. Collectively, ARW shields intestinal epithelial cells from oxidative stress, reducing the immunological mayhem caused by barrier failure.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (57.99%), Inflammation (51%)


286 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09944
12 May 2011-Nature
Abstract: Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific. We also confirmed the enterotypes in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers.

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Topics: Enterotype (64%), Microbiome (53%), Human Microbiome Project (52%)

4,597 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/AJCN/81.1.230S
Abstract: Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is emerging. Bioavailability differs greatly from one polyphenol to another, so that the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Mean values for the maximal plasma concentration, the time to reach the maximal plasma concentration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve, the elimination half-life, and the relative urinary excretion were calculated for 18 major polyphenols. We used data from 97 studies that investigated the kinetics and extent of polyphenol absorption among adults, after ingestion of a single dose of polyphenol provided as pure compound, plant extract, or whole food/beverage. The metabolites present in blood, resulting from digestive and hepatic activity, usually differ from the native compounds. The nature of the known metabolites is described when data are available. The plasma concentrations of total metabolites ranged from 0 to 4 μmol/L with an intake of 50 mg aglycone equivalents, and the relative urinary excretion ranged from 0.3% to 43% of the ingested dose, depending on the polyphenol. Gallic acid and isoflavones are the most well-absorbed polyphenols, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides, but with different kinetics. The least well-absorbed polyphenols are the proanthocyanidins, the galloylated tea catechins, and the anthocyanins. Data are still too limited for assessment of hydroxycinnamic acids and other polyphenols. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of polyphenols.

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3,368 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRI2653
Jerrold R. Turner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. These cells establish a barrier between sometimes hostile external environments and the internal milieu. However, mucosae are also responsible for nutrient absorption and waste secretion, which require a selectively permeable barrier. These functions place the mucosal epithelium at the centre of interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, including dietary antigens and microbial products. Recent advances have uncovered mechanisms by which the intestinal mucosal barrier is regulated in response to physiological and immunological stimuli. Here I discuss these discoveries along with evidence that this regulation shapes mucosal immune responses in the gut and, when dysfunctional, may contribute to disease.

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Topics: Mucosal immunology (61%)

2,252 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1194/JLR.R036012
Abstract: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the end products of fermentation of dietary fibers by the anaerobic intestinal microbiota, have been shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on mammalian energy metabolism. The mechanisms underlying these effects are the subject of intensive research and encompass the complex interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism. This review summarizes the role of SCFAs in host energy metabolism, starting from the production by the gut microbiota to the uptake by the host and ending with the effects on host metabolism. There are interesting leads on the underlying molecular mechanisms, but there are also many apparently contradictory results. A coherent understanding of the multilevel network in which SCFAs exert their effects is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on actual fluxes of SCFAs and metabolic processes regulated by SCFAs. In this review we address questions that, when answered, will bring us a great step forward in elucidating the role of SCFAs in mammalian energy metabolism.

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Topics: Gut flora (52%)

2,223 Citations

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