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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0NR08281C

Single-step chemical vapour deposition of anti-pyramid MoS2/WS2 vertical heterostructures.

04 Mar 2021-Nanoscale (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC))-Vol. 13, Iss: 8, pp 4537-4542
Abstract: Van der Waals heterostructures are the fundamental building blocks of electronic and optoelectronic devices Here we report that, through a single-step chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process, high-quality vertical bilayer MoS2/WS2 heterostructures with a grain size up to ∼60 μm can be synthesized from molten salt precursors, Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 Instead of normal pyramid vertical heterostructures grown by CVD, this method synthesizes an anti-pyramid MoS2/WS2 structure, which is characterized by Raman, photoluminescence and second harmonic generation microscopy Our facile CVD strategy for synthesizing anti-pyramid structures unveils a new synthesis route for the products of two-dimensional heterostructures and their devices for application

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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1CE01289D
Xia Jiang1, Fei Chen1, Shichao Zhao1, Weitao Su1Institutions (1)
03 Nov 2021-CrystEngComm
Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) vertical heterostructures (HSs) constructed via vertically stacking two or more 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials have been intensively studied over the past several years. However, it is still a great challenge to realize the controllable fabrication of 2D TMDC vertical HSs via the “bottom-up” growth strategy, which is regarded as a crucial step toward further performance study and device applications. So far, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been reported to be a feasible approach to achieve high controllability in the growth of various 2D materials, which has promoted the in-depth study of the CVD growth of 2D TMDC vertical HSs. In this review, we first introduce the fundamental properties as well as the diverse preparation strategies of various 2D TMDC-based vertical HSs. Major attention is paid to the controllable CVD growth of multitudinous 2D TMDC vertical HSs. This review highlights recent advances in the controllable growth of 2D TMDC vertical HSs via utilizing four main strategies during the CVD procedure, including the synthesis step, effect of growth temperature, precursor design, and substrate engineering. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and prospects in this rapidly advancing field of research.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSPHOTONICS.1C00767
Yuchen Wang1, Vincent Pelgrin2, Vincent Pelgrin1, Samuel Gyger3  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
15 Sep 2021-ACS Photonics
Abstract: The heterogeneous integration of low-dimensional materials with photonic waveguides has spurred wide research interest. Here, we report on the experimental investigation and the numerical modeling of enhanced nonlinear pulse broadening in silicon nitride waveguides with the heterogeneous integration of few-layer WS2. After transferring a few-layer WS2 flake of ∼14.8 μm length, the pulse spectral broadening in a dispersion-engineered silicon nitride waveguide has been enhanced by ∼48.8% in bandwidth. Through numerical modeling, an effective nonlinear coefficient higher than 600 m-1 W-1 has been retrieved for the heterogeneous waveguide indicating an enhancement factor of larger than 300 with respect to the pristine waveguide at a wavelength of 800 nm. With further advances in two-dimensional material fabrication and integration techniques, on-chip heterostructures will offer another degree of freedom for waveguide engineering, enabling high-performance nonlinear optical devices, such as frequency combs and quantum light sources.

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Topics: Silicon photonics (58%), Waveguide (55%), Photonics (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ISCI.2021.103229
Shisheng Li1Institutions (1)
07 Oct 2021-iScience
Abstract: Salt-assisted chemical vapor deposition (SA-CVD), which uses halide salts (e.g., NaCl, KBr, etc.) and molten salts (e.g., Na2MoO4, Na2WO4, etc.) as precursors, is one of the most popular methods favored for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as atomically thin metal chalcogenides, graphene, and h-BN. In this review, the distinct functions of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) and alkali metals (Li, Na, K) in SA-CVD are first clarified. Based on the current development in SA-CVD growth and its related reaction modes, the existing methods are categorized into the Salt 1.0 (halide salts-based) and Salt 2.0 (molten salts-based) techniques. The achievements, advantages, and limitations of each technique are discussed in detail. Finally, new perspectives are proposed for the application of SA-CVD in the synthesis of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides for advanced electronics.

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Topics: Halide (54%), Chemical vapor deposition (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SPMI.2021.107077
Abstract: Nanoplasmonics is a potential game-changer in the development of next-generation on-chip photonic devices and computers, owing to the geometrically controlled and amplified linear and nonlinear optical processes. For instance, it resolves the limited light-matter interaction of the unique two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials like semiconducting monolayer molybdenum disulfide (1L-MoS2). Metal grating (MG) substrates excel at this because their surface plasmons (SPs) can lead to stark field confinement near the surface. This work studies optical amplification of 1L-MoS2 on the gold (Au) MG substrate, which was designed to operate in a glycerol environment with SP resonance (SPR) at 850 nm excitation wavelength. Its design was verified by simulated and experimental reflectances, and topographically inspected by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two advanced imaging modalities, second harmonic generation (SHG) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) were used to evaluate its 170-fold SHG on- and 3-fold CRM off-resonance optical amplifications, respectively. Some MoS2-to-grating adhesion issues due to trapped liquid showed as image nonuniformities. Possible improvements to limitations like surface roughness were also discussed. These Au MG substrates can boost conventional linear and nonlinear backscattering microscopies because they are tunable in the visible and near-infrared range by selecting geometry, metal, and environment.

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Topics: Surface plasmon (58%), Second-harmonic generation (55%), Raman scattering (53%) ... read more

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44 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAC9439
29 Jul 2016-Science
Abstract: BACKGROUND Materials by design is an appealing idea that is very hard to realize in practice. Combining the best of different ingredients in one ultimate material is a task for which we currently have no general solution. However, we do have some successful examples to draw upon: Composite materials and III-V heterostructures have revolutionized many aspects of our lives. Still, we need a general strategy to solve the problem of mixing and matching crystals with different properties, creating combinations with predetermined attributes and functionalities. ADVANCES Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer a platform that allows creation of heterostructures with a variety of properties. One-atom-thick crystals now comprise a large family of these materials, collectively covering a very broad range of properties. The first material to be included was graphene, a zero-overlap semimetal. The family of 2D crystals has grown to includes metals (e.g., NbSe 2 ), semiconductors (e.g., MoS 2 ), and insulators [e.g., hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)]. Many of these materials are stable at ambient conditions, and we have come up with strategies for handling those that are not. Surprisingly, the properties of such 2D materials are often very different from those of their 3D counterparts. Furthermore, even the study of familiar phenomena (like superconductivity or ferromagnetism) in the 2D case, where there is no long-range order, raises many thought-provoking questions. A plethora of opportunities appear when we start to combine several 2D crystals in one vertical stack. Held together by van der Waals forces (the same forces that hold layered materials together), such heterostructures allow a far greater number of combinations than any traditional growth method. As the family of 2D crystals is expanding day by day, so too is the complexity of the heterostructures that could be created with atomic precision. When stacking different crystals together, the synergetic effects become very important. In the first-order approximation, charge redistribution might occur between the neighboring (and even more distant) crystals in the stack. Neighboring crystals can also induce structural changes in each other. Furthermore, such changes can be controlled by adjusting the relative orientation between the individual elements. Such heterostructures have already led to the observation of numerous exciting physical phenomena. Thus, spectrum reconstruction in graphene interacting with hBN allowed several groups to study the Hofstadter butterfly effect and topological currents in such a system. The possibility of positioning crystals in very close (but controlled) proximity to one another allows for the study of tunneling and drag effects. The use of semiconducting monolayers leads to the creation of optically active heterostructures. The extended range of functionalities of such heterostructures yields a range of possible applications. Now the highest-mobility graphene transistors are achieved by encapsulating graphene with hBN. Photovoltaic and light-emitting devices have been demonstrated by combining optically active semiconducting layers and graphene as transparent electrodes. OUTLOOK Currently, most 2D heterostructures are composed by direct stacking of individual monolayer flakes of different materials. Although this method allows ultimate flexibility, it is slow and cumbersome. Thus, techniques involving transfer of large-area crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), direct growth of heterostructures by CVD or physical epitaxy, or one-step growth in solution are being developed. Currently, we are at the same level as we were with graphene 10 years ago: plenty of interesting science and unclear prospects for mass production. Given the fast progress of graphene technology over the past few years, we can expect similar advances in the production of the heterostructures, making the science and applications more achievable.

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Topics: Graphene (50%)

3,532 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADFM.201102111
Hong Li1, Qing Zhang1, Chin Chong Yap1, Beng Kang Tay1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Molybdenum disulfi de (MoS 2 ) is systematically studied using Raman spectroscopy with ultraviolet and visible laser lines. It is shown that only the Raman frequencies of E 1 and A1g peaks vary monotonously with the layer number of ultrathin MoS 2 fl akes, while intensities or widths of the peaks vary arbitrarily. The coupling between electronic transitions and phonons are found to become weaker when the layer number of MoS 2 decreases, attributed to the increased electronic transition energies or elongated intralayer atomic bonds in ultrathin MoS 2 . The asymmetric Raman peak at 454 cm − 1 , which has been regarded as the overtone of longitudinal optical M phonons in bulk MoS 2 , is actually a combinational band involving a longitudinal acoustic mode (LA(M)) and an optical mode ( A2u ). Our fi ndings suggest a clear evolution of the coupling between electronic transition and phonon when MoS 2 is scaled down from three- to two-dimensional geometry.

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Topics: Raman spectroscopy (59%), Raman scattering (56%), Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (56%) ... read more

2,771 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C4NR01600A
04 Mar 2015-Nanoscale
Abstract: We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. We provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries. We also define an extensive list of acronyms in an effort to standardize the nomenclature in this emerging field.

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2,215 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT4091
Yongji Gong1, Junhao Lin2, Xingli Wang3, Gang Shi1  +14 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Dec 2014-Nature Materials
Abstract: Layer-by-layer stacking or lateral interfacing of atomic monolayers has opened up unprecedented opportunities to engineer two-dimensional heteromaterials. Fabrication of such artificial heterostructures with atomically clean and sharp interfaces, however, is challenging. Here, we report a one-step growth strategy for the creation of high-quality vertically stacked as well as in-plane interconnected heterostructures of WS2/MoS2 via control of the growth temperature. Vertically stacked bilayers with WS2 epitaxially grown on top of the MoS2 monolayer are formed with preferred stacking order at high temperature. A strong interlayer excitonic transition is observed due to the type II band alignment and to the clean interface of these bilayers. Vapour growth at low temperature, on the other hand, leads to lateral epitaxy of WS2 on MoS2 edges, creating seamless and atomically sharp in-plane heterostructures that generate strong localized photoluminescence enhancement and intrinsic p-n junctions. The fabrication of heterostructures from monolayers, using simple and scalable growth, paves the way for the creation of unprecedented two-dimensional materials with exciting properties.

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1,617 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT4205
Abstract: The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors5, photovoltaic devices, etc. Here we take the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level by introducing quantum wells (QWs) engineered with one atomic plane precision. We describe light emitting diodes (LEDs) made by stacking up metallic graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and various semiconducting monolayers into complex but carefully designed sequences. Our first devices already exhibit extrinsic quantum efficiency of nearly 10% and the emission can be tuned over a wide range of frequencies by appropriately choosing and combining 2D semiconductors (monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides). By preparing the heterostructures on elastic and transparent substrates, we show that they can also provide the basis for flexible and semi-transparent electronics. The range of functionalities for the demonstrated heterostructures is expected to grow further with increasing the number of available 2D crystals and improving their electronic quality.

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Topics: Quantum tunnelling (53%), Semiconductor (52%), Graphene (51%) ... read more

1,150 Citations


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