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Showing papers in "Science in 2002"


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jul 2002-Science
TL;DR: It has been more than 10 years since it was first proposed that the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be caused by deposition of amyloid β-peptide in plaques in brain tissue and the rest of the disease process is proposed to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and Aβ clearance.
Abstract: It has been more than 10 years since it was first proposed that the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer9s disease (AD) may be caused by deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in plaques in brain tissue. According to the amyloid hypothesis, accumulation of Aβ in the brain is the primary influence driving AD pathogenesis. The rest of the disease process, including formation of neurofibrillary tangles containing tau protein, is proposed to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and Aβ clearance.

11,721 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects.
Abstract: Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects. Some of these applications are now realized in products. Others are demonstrated in early to advanced devices, and one, hydrogen storage, is clouded by controversy. Nanotube cost, polydispersity in nanotube type, and limitations in processing and assembly methods are important barriers for some applications of single-walled nanotubes.

9,296 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Dec 2002-Science
TL;DR: The protein kinase complement of the human genome is catalogued using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag sequences to provide a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states and a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family.
Abstract: We have catalogued the protein kinase complement of the human genome (the "kinome") using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. This provides a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states, as well as a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family. We identify 518 putative protein kinase genes, of which 71 have not previously been reported or described as kinases, and we extend or correct the protein sequences of 56 more kinases. New genes include members of well-studied families as well as previously unidentified families, some of which are conserved in model organisms. Classification and comparison with model organism kinomes identified orthologous groups and highlighted expansions specific to human and other lineages. We also identified 106 protein kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping revealed several small clusters of kinase genes and revealed that 244 kinases map to disease loci or cancer amplicons.

6,993 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jan 2002-Science
TL;DR: Metal-organic framework (MOF-5), a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn-O-C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its three-dimensional porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups and can be expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl.
Abstract: A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality could be varied systematically. Metal-organic framework (MOF-5), a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn-O-C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its three-dimensional porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups –Br, –NH2, –OC3H7, –OC5H11, –C2H4, and –C4H4 and that its pore size can be expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. We synthesized an isoreticular series (one that has the same framework topology) of 16 highly crystalline materials whose open space represented up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, as well as homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. One member of this series exhibited a high capacity for methane storage (240 cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram at 36 atmospheres and ambient temperature), and others the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 gram per cubic centimeter) for a crystalline material at room temperature.

6,376 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Oct 2002-Science
TL;DR: Network motifs, patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks, are defined and may define universal classes of networks.
Abstract: Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined “network motifs,” patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the motifs shared by the genetic networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or from those found in the World Wide Web. Similar motifs were found in networks that perform information processing, even though they describe elements as different as biomolecules within a cell and synaptic connections between neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Motifs may thus define universal classes of networks. This

6,350 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
29 Mar 2002-Science
TL;DR: Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology and involve components from the molecular to the planetary scale and many different kinds of interactions.
Abstract: Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology. They involve components from the molecular (crystals) to the planetary (weather systems) scale and many different kinds of interactions. The concept of self-assembly is used increasingly in many disciplines, with a different flavor and emphasis in each.

5,956 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Dec 2002-Science
TL;DR: Monodisperse samples of silver nanocubes were synthesized in large quantities by reducing silver nitrate with ethylene glycol in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), characterized by a slightly truncated shape bounded by {100, {110}, and {111} facets.
Abstract: Monodisperse samples of silver nanocubes were synthesized in large quantities by reducing silver nitrate with ethylene glycol in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). These cubes were single crystals and were characterized by a slightly truncated shape bounded by {100}, {110}, and {111} facets. The presence of PVP and its molar ratio (in terms of repeating unit) relative to silver nitrate both played important roles in determining the geometric shape and size of the product. The silver cubes could serve as sacrificial templates to generate single-crystalline nanoboxes of gold: hollow polyhedra bounded by six {100} and eight {111} facets. Controlling the size, shape, and structure of metal nanoparticles is technologically important because of the strong correlation between these parameters and optical, electrical, and catalytic properties.

5,701 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jun 2002-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that the human genome can be parsed objectively into haplotype blocks: sizable regions over which there is little evidence for historical recombination and within which only a few common haplotypes are observed.
Abstract: Haplotype-based methods offer a powerful approach to disease gene mapping, based on the association between causal mutations and the ancestral haplotypes on which they arose. As part of The SNP Consortium Allele Frequency Projects, we characterized haplotype patterns across 51 autosomal regions (spanning 13 megabases of the human genome) in samples from Africa, Europe, and Asia. We show that the human genome can be parsed objectively into haplotype blocks: sizable regions over which there is little evidence for historical recombination and within which only a few common haplotypes are observed. The boundaries of blocks and specific haplotypes they contain are highly correlated across populations. We demonstrate that such haplotype frameworks provide substantial statistical power in association studies of common genetic variation across each region. Our results provide a foundation for the construction of a haplotype map of the human genome, facilitating comprehensive genetic association studies of human disease.

5,436 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 May 2002-Science
TL;DR: The PI3K pathway is implicated in human diseases including diabetes and cancer, and understanding the intricacies of this pathway may provide new avenues for therapuetic intervention.
Abstract: Phosphorylated lipids are produced at cellular membranes during signaling events and contribute to the recruitment and activation of various signaling components. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, in cell survival pathways; the regulation of gene expression and cell metabolism; and cytoskeletal rearrangements are highlighted. The PI3K pathway is implicated in human diseases including diabetes and cancer, and understanding the intricacies of this pathway may provide new avenues for therapuetic intervention.

5,107 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Apr 2002-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that siRNA expression mediated by this vector causes efficient and specific down-regulation of gene expression, resulting in functional inactivation of the targeted genes.
Abstract: Mammalian genetic approaches to study gene function have been hampered by the lack of tools to generate stable loss-of-function phenotypes efficiently. We report here a new vector system, named pSUPER, which directs the synthesis of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in mammalian cells. We show that siRNA expression mediated by this vector causes efficient and specific down-regulation of gene expression, resulting in functional inactivation of the targeted genes. Stable expression of siRNAs using this vector mediates persistent suppression of gene expression, allowing the analysis of loss-of-function phenotypes that develop over longer periods of time. Therefore, the pSUPER vector constitutes a new and powerful system to analyze gene function in a variety of mammalian cell types.

4,887 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: This work constructed strains of Escherichia coli that enable detection of noise and discrimination between the two mechanisms by which it is generated and reveals how low intracellular copy numbers of molecules can fundamentally limit the precision of gene regulation.
Abstract: Clonal populations of cells exhibit substantial phenotypic variation. Such heterogeneity can be essential for many biological processes and is conjectured to arise from stochasticity, or noise, in gene expression. We constructed strains of Escherichia coli that enable detection of noise and discrimination between the two mechanisms by which it is generated. Both stochasticity inherent in the biochemical process of gene expression (intrinsic noise) and fluctuations in other cellular components (extrinsic noise) contribute substantially to overall variation. Transcription rate, regulatory dynamics, and genetic factors control the amplitude of noise. These results establish a quantitative foundation for modeling noise in genetic networks and reveal how low intracellular copy numbers of molecules can fundamentally limit the precision of gene regulation.

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Mar 2002-Science
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that semiconductor nanorods can be used to fabricate readily processed and efficient hybrid solar cells together with polymers and Tuning the band gap by altering the nanorod radius enabled us to optimize the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum.
Abstract: We demonstrate that semiconductor nanorods can be used to fabricate readily processed and efficient hybrid solar cells together with polymers. By controlling nanorod length, we can change the distance on which electrons are transported directly through the thin film device. Tuning the band gap by altering the nanorod radius enabled us to optimize the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum. A photovoltaic device consisting of 7-nanometer by 60-nanometer CdSe nanorods and the conjugated polymer poly-3(hexylthiophene) was assembled from solution with an external quantum efficiency of over 54% and a monochromatic power conversion efficiency of 6.9% under 0.1 milliwatt per square centimeter illumination at 515 nanometers. Under Air Mass (A.M.) 1.5 Global solar conditions, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: In this paper, a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood was studied to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not.
Abstract: We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) was found to moderate the effect of maltreatment. Maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of MAOA expression were less likely to develop antisocial problems. These findings may partly explain why not all victims of maltreatment grow up to victimize others, and they provide epidemiological evidence that genotypes can moderate children's sensitivity to environmental insults.

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Apr 2002-Science
TL;DR: A draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp.indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing is produced, with a large proportion of rice genes with no recognizable homologs due to a gradient in the GC content of rice coding sequences.
Abstract: We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact 20-nucleotide oligomer repeats, and most of the transposons were in the intergenic regions between genes. Although 80.6% of predicted Arabidopsis thaliana genes had a homolog in rice, only 49.4% of predicted rice genes had a homolog in A. thaliana. The large proportion of rice genes with no recognizable homologs is due to a gradient in the GC-content of rice coding sequences.

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Apr 2002-Science
TL;DR: A model of immunity based on the idea that the immune system is more concerned with entities that do damage than with those that are foreign is outlined.
Abstract: For over 50 years immunologists have based their thoughts, experiments, and clinical treatments on the idea that the immune system functions by making a distinction between self and nonself. Although this paradigm has often served us well, years of detailed examination have revealed a number of inherent problems. This Viewpoint outlines a model of immunity based on the idea that the immune system is more concerned with entities that do damage than with those that are foreign.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2002-Science
TL;DR: To understand biology at the system level, the authors must examine the structure and dynamics of cellular and organismal function, rather than the characteristics of isolated parts of a cell or organism.
Abstract: To understand biology at the system level, we must examine the structure and dynamics of cellular and organismal function, rather than the characteristics of isolated parts of a cell or organism. Properties of systems, such as robustness, emerge as central issues, and understanding these properties may have an impact on the future of medicine. However, many breakthroughs in experimental devices, advanced software, and analytical methods are required before the achievements of systems biology can live up to their much-touted potential.

Journal ArticleDOI
30 Aug 2002-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that the metabolic networks of 43 distinct organisms are organized into many small, highly connected topologic modules that combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive units, with their number and degree of clustering following a power law.
Abstract: Spatially or chemically isolated functional modules composed of several cellular components and carrying discrete functions are considered fundamental building blocks of cellular organization, but their presence in highly integrated biochemical networks lacks quantitative support Here, we show that the metabolic networks of 43 distinct organisms are organized into many small, highly connected topologic modules that combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive units, with their number and degree of clustering following a power law Within Escherichia coli, the uncovered hierarchical modularity closely overlaps with known metabolic functions The identified network architecture may be generic to system-level cellular organization

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Sep 2002-Science
TL;DR: A chemically modified n-type TiO2 is synthesized by controlled combustion of Ti metal in a natural gas flame and performs water splitting with a total conversion efficiency of 11% and a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 8.35% when illuminated at 40 milliwatts per square centimeter.
Abstract: Although n-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a promising substrate for photogeneration of hydrogen from water, most attempts at doping this material so that it absorbs light in the visible region of the solar spectrum have met with limited success. We synthesized a chemically modified n-type TiO2 by controlled combustion of Ti metal in a natural gas flame. This material, in which carbon substitutes for some of the lattice oxygen atoms, absorbs light at wavelengths below 535 nanometers and has a lower band-gap energy than rutile (2.32 versus 3.00 electron volts). At an applied potential of 0.3 volt, chemically modified n-type TiO2 performs water splitting with a total conversion efficiency of 11% and a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 8.35% when illuminated at 40 milliwatts per square centimeter. The latter value compares favorably with a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 1% for n-type TiO2 biased at 0.6 volt.

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Dec 2002-Science
TL;DR: Multicellular organisms have three well-characterized subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that control a vast array of physiological processes, and inhibitors of these enzymes are being explored as anticancer agents.
Abstract: Multicellular organisms have three well-characterized subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that control a vast array of physiological processes. These enzymes are regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three protein kinases phosphorylate and activate one another. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) function in the control of cell division, and inhibitors of these enzymes are being explored as anticancer agents. The c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) are critical regulators of transcription, and JNK inhibitors may be effective in control of rheumatoid arthritis. The p38 MAPKs are activated by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses and may contribute to diseases like asthma and autoimmunity.

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Oct 2002-Science
TL;DR: Mounting evidence suggests that this syndrome begins with subtle alterations of hippocampal synaptic efficacy prior to frank neuronal degeneration, and that the synaptic dysfunction is caused by diffusible oligomeric assemblies of the amyloid β protein.
Abstract: In its earliest clinical phase, Alzheimer's disease characteristically produces a remarkably pure impairment of memory. Mounting evidence suggests that this syndrome begins with subtle alterations of hippocampal synaptic efficacy prior to frank neuronal degeneration, and that the synaptic dysfunction is caused by diffusible oligomeric assemblies of the amyloid β protein.

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jul 2002-Science
TL;DR: At pH less than 5, the absorption and emission spectra of individual nanotubes show evidence of band gap–selective protonation of the side walls of the tube, which is readily reversed by treatment with base or ultraviolet light.
Abstract: Fluorescence has been observed directly across the band gap of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. We obtained individual nanotubes, each encased in a cylindrical micelle, by ultrasonically agitating an aqueous dispersion of raw single-walled carbon nanotubes in sodium dodecyl sulfate and then centrifuging to remove tube bundles, ropes, and residual catalyst. Aggregation of nanotubes into bundles otherwise quenches the fluorescence through interactions with metallic tubes and substantially broadens the absorption spectra. At pH less than 5, the absorption and emission spectra of individual nanotubes show evidence of band gap-selective protonation of the side walls of the tube. This protonation is readily reversed by treatment with base or ultraviolet light.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2002-Science
TL;DR: The purification and characterization of an EED-EZH2 complex, the human counterpart of the Drosophila ESC-E(Z) complex, is reported, and it is demonstrated that the complex specifically methylates nucleosomal histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3-K27).
Abstract: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins play important roles in maintaining the silent state of HOX genes. Recent studies have implicated histone methylation in long-term gene silencing. However, a connection between PcG-mediated gene silencing and histone methylation has not been established. Here we report the purification and characterization of an EED-EZH2 complex, the human counterpart of the Drosophila ESC-E(Z) complex. We demonstrate that the complex specifically methylates nucleosomal histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3-K27). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that H3-K27 methylation colocalizes with, and is dependent on, E(Z) binding at an Ultrabithorax (Ubx) Polycomb response element (PRE), and that this methylation correlates with Ubx repression. Methylation on H3-K27 facilitates binding of Polycomb (PC), a component of the PRC1 complex, to histone H3 amino-terminal tail. Thus, these studies establish a link between histone methylation and PcG-mediated gene silencing.

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Mar 2002-Science
TL;DR: Understanding how the thousands of different proteins synthesized in a cell use this chaperone machinery has profound implications for biotechnology and medicine.
Abstract: Efficient folding of many newly synthesized proteins depends on assistance from molecular chaperones, which serve to prevent protein misfolding and aggregation in the crowded environment of the cell. Nascent chain–binding chaperones, including trigger factor, Hsp70, and prefoldin, stabilize elongating chains on ribosomes in a nonaggregated state. Folding in the cytosol is achieved either on controlled chain release from these factors or after transfer of newly synthesized proteins to downstream chaperones, such as the chaperonins. These are large, cylindrical complexes that provide a central compartment for a single protein chain to fold unimpaired by aggregation. Understanding how the thousands of different proteins synthesized in a cell use this chaperone machinery has profound implications for biotechnology and medicine.

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2002-Science
TL;DR: Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this work could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis and found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout.
Abstract: We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

PatentDOI
14 Nov 2002-Science
TL;DR: In this paper, pH-induced self-assembly of a peptide-amphiphile was used to make a nanostructured fibrous scaffold reminiscent of extracellular matrix.
Abstract: We have used the pH-induced self-assembly of a peptide-amphiphile to make a nanostructured fibrous scaffold reminiscent of extracellular matrix. The design of this peptide-amphiphile allows the nanofibers to be reversibly cross-linked to enhance or decrease their structural integrity. After cross-linking, the fibers are able to direct mineralization of hydroxyapatite to form a composite material in which the crystallographic c axes of hydroxyapatite are aligned with the long axes of the fibers. This alignment is the same as that observed between collagen fibrils and hydroxyapatite crystals in bone.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Nov 2002-Science
TL;DR: It is argued that an understanding of the faculty of language requires substantial interdisciplinary cooperation and how current developments in linguistics can be profitably wedded to work in evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, and neuroscience is suggested.
Abstract: We argue that an understanding of the faculty of language requires substantial interdisciplinary cooperation. We suggest how current developments in linguistics can be profitably wedded to work in evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, and neuroscience. We submit that a distinction should be made between the faculty of language in the broad sense (FLB)and in the narrow sense (FLN) . FLB includes a sensory-motor system, a conceptual-intentional system, and the computational mechanisms for recursion, providing the capacity to generate an infinite range of expressions from a finite set of elements. We hypothesize that FLN only includes recursion and is the only uniquely human component of the faculty of language. We further argue that FLN may have evolved for reasons other than language, hence comparative studies might look for evidence of such computations outside of the domain of communication (for example, number, navigation, and social relations).

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Oct 2002-Science
TL;DR: This work determines how most of the transcriptional regulators encoded in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae associate with genes across the genome in living cells, and identifies network motifs, the simplest units of network architecture, and demonstrates that an automated process can use motifs to assemble a transcriptional regulatory network structure.
Abstract: We have determined how most of the transcriptional regulators encoded in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiaeassociate with genes across the genome in living cells. Just as maps of metabolic networks describe the potential pathways that may be used by a cell to accomplish metabolic processes, this network of regulator-gene interactions describes potential pathways yeast cells can use to regulate global gene expression programs. We use this information to identify network motifs, the simplest units of network architecture, and demonstrate that an automated process can use motifs to assemble a transcriptional regulatory network structure. Our results reveal that eukaryotic cellular functions are highly connected through networks of transcriptional regulators that regulate other transcriptional regulators.

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jan 2002-Science
TL;DR: This work presents a passive method for mixing streams of steady pressure-driven flows in microchannels at low Reynolds number, and uses bas-relief structures on the floor of the channel that are easily fabricated with commonly used methods of planar lithography.
Abstract: It is difficult to mix solutions in microchannels. Under typical operating conditions, flows in these channels are laminar—the spontaneous fluctuations of velocity that tend to homogenize fluids in turbulent flows are absent, and molecular diffusion across the channels is slow. We present a passive method for mixing streams of steady pressure-driven flows in microchannels at low Reynolds number. Using this method, the length of the channel required for mixing grows only logarithmically with the Pe «clet number, and hydrodynamic dispersion along the channel is reduced relative to that in a simple, smooth channel. This method uses bas-relief structures on the floor of the channel that are easily fabricated with commonly used methods of planar lithography.

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Nov 2002-Science
TL;DR: C encapsulated individual nanocrystals in phospholipid block–copolymer micelles acted as in vitro fluorescent probes to hybridize to specific complementary sequences and were followed to the tadpole stage, allowing lineage-tracing experiments in embryogenesis.
Abstract: Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) have the potential to revolutionize biological imaging, but their use has been limited by difficulties in obtaining nanocrystals that are biocompatible. To address this problem, we encapsulated individual nanocrystals in phospholipid block-copolymer micelles and demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo imaging. When conjugated to DNA, the nanocrystal-micelles acted as in vitro fluorescent probes to hybridize to specific complementary sequences. Moreover, when injected into Xenopus embryos, the nanocrystal-micelles were stable, nontoxic (<5 x 10(9) nanocrystals per cell), cell autonomous, and slow to photobleach. Nanocrystal fluorescence could be followed to the tadpole stage, allowing lineage-tracing experiments in embryogenesis.

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Apr 2002-Science
TL;DR: In this article, the structure, properties, and failure mechanisms of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are reviewed, together with a discussion of current limitations and future opportunities.
Abstract: Hundreds of different types of coatings are used to protect a variety of structural engineering materials from corrosion, wear, and erosion, and to provide lubrication and thermal insulation. Of all these, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have the most complex structure and must operate in the most demanding high-temperature environment of aircraft and industrial gas-turbine engines. TBCs, which comprise metal and ceramic multilayers, insulate turbine and combustor engine components from the hot gas stream, and improve the durability and energy efficiency of these engines. Improvements in TBCs will require a better understanding of the complex changes in their structure and properties that occur under operating conditions that lead to their failure. The structure, properties, and failure mechanisms of TBCs are herein reviewed, together with a discussion of current limitations and future opportunities.