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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects and mechanisms of silibinin on human hepatoma cell lines.

28 Oct 2007-World Journal of Gastroenterology (Baishideng Publishing Group Inc)-Vol. 13, Iss: 40, pp 5299-5305

TL;DR: It is demonstrated that silibinin significantly reduced the growth of HuH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5 human hepatoma cells and increased acetylation of histone H3 and H4, indicating a possible role of altered histone acetylations in silib inin-reduced HCC cell proliferation.

AbstractAIM: To investigate in vitro effects and mechanisms of silibinin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth. METHODS: Human HCC cell lines were treated with different doses of silibinin. The effects of silibinin on HCC cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, histone acetylation, and other related signal transductions were systematically examined. RESULTS: We demonstrated that silibinin significantly reduced the growth of HuH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5 human hepatoma cells. Silibinin-reduced HuH7 cell growth was associated with significantly up-regulated p21/CDK4 and p27/CDK4 complexes, down-regulated Rb-phosphorylation and E2F1/DP1 complex. Silibinin promoted apoptosis of HuH7 cells that was associated with down-regulated survivin and up-regulated activated caspase-3 and -9. Silibinin's anti-angiogenic effects were indicated by down-regulated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and CD34. We found that silibinin-reduced growth of HuH7 cells was associated with increased activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and decreased p-Akt production, indicating the role of PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway in silibinin-mediated anti-HCC effects. We also demonstrated that silibinin increased acetylation of histone H3 and H4 (AC-H3 and AC-H4), indicating a possible role of altered histone acetylation in silibinin-reduced HCC cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our results defined silibinin's in vitro anti-HCC effects and possible mechanisms, and provided a rationale to further test silibinin for HCC chemoprevention.

Topics: Silibinin (72%), PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (53%), Cell growth (53%), Cell cycle (52%), PTEN (52%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is emphasized how increased understanding of the chemopreventive effects of dietary polyphenols on specific epigenetic alterations may provide unique and yet unexplored novel and highly effective chemopresventive strategies for reducing the health burden of cancer and other diseases in humans.
Abstract: Epigenetics refers to heritable changes that are not encoded in the DNA sequence itself, but play an important role in the control of gene expression In mammals, epigenetic mechanisms include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs Although epigenetic changes are heritable in somatic cells, these modifications are also potentially reversible, which makes them attractive and promising avenues for tailoring cancer preventive and therapeutic strategies Burgeoning evidence in the last decade has provided unprecedented clues that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms in humans Dietary polyphenols from green tea, turmeric, soybeans, broccoli and others have shown to possess multiple cell-regulatory activities within cancer cells More recently, we have begun to understand that some of the dietary polyphenols may exert their chemopreventive effects in part by modulating various components of the epigenetic machinery in humans In this article, we first discuss the contribution of diet and environmental factors on epigenetic alterations; subsequently, we provide a comprehensive review of literature on the role of various dietary polyphenols In particular, we summarize the current knowledge on a large number of dietary agents and their effects on DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of expression of the non-coding miRNAs in various in vitro and in vivo models We emphasize how increased understanding of the chemopreventive effects of dietary polyphenols on specific epigenetic alterations may provide unique and yet unexplored novel and highly effective chemopreventive strategies for reducing the health burden of cancer and other diseases in humans

396 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The protective effects of silymarin and its major active constituent, silibinin, studied in various tissues, suggest a clinical application in cancer patients as an adjunct to established therapies, to prevent or reduce chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy-induced toxicity.
Abstract: Silymarin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant, is used for the protection against various liver conditions in both clinical settings and experimental models. In this review, we summarize the recent investigations and mechanistic studies regarding possible molecular targets of silymarin for cancer prevention. Number of studies has established the cancer chemopreventive role of silymarin in both in vivo and in vitro models. Silymarin modulates imbalance between cell survival and apoptosis through interference with the expressions of cell cycle regulators and proteins involved in apoptosis. In addition, silymarin also showed anti-inflammatory as well as anti-metastatic activity. Further, the protective effects of silymarin and its major active constituent, silibinin, studied in various tissues, suggest a clinical application in cancer patients as an adjunct to established therapies, to prevent or reduce chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy-induced toxicity. This review focuses on the chemistry and analogues of silymarin, multiple possible molecular mechanisms, in vitro as well as in vivo anti-cancer activities, and studies on human clinical trials.

336 citations


Cites background from "Effects and mechanisms of silibinin..."

  • ...[31]....

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  • ...Silibinin also promotes apoptosis of human hepatoma HuH7 cells by down-regulating survivin and up-regulating activated caspase-3 and -9 [31]....

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  • ...In other studies, silibinin significantly upregulated p21/CDK4 and p27/CDK4 complexes and down-regulated Rb-phosphorylation and E2F1/DP1 complex thereby inhibiting human hepatoma HuH7 cell growth [31]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of available studies on the effects of the purified product silybin on liver cells or on experimentally induced liver damage, and in patients with liver disease indicates that the bioavailability of slybin phytosome is higher than that of silymarin and is less influenced by liver damage.
Abstract: Herbal products are increasingly used, mainly in chronic liver disease. Extracts of milk thistle, Silymarin and silybin, are the most prescribed natural compounds, with different indications, but with no definitive results in terms of clinical efficacy. This review analyzes the available studies on the effects of the purified product silybin, both as a free and a conjugated molecule, on liver cells or on experimentally induced liver damage, and in patients with liver disease. We searched PUBMED for articles pertaining to the in vitro and in vivo effects of silybin, its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, as well as its metabolic effects, combined with the authors' own knowledge of the literature. Results indicate that the bioavailability of silybin phytosome is higher than that of silymarin and is less influenced by liver damage; silybin does not show significant interactions with other drugs and at doses < 10 g/d has no significant side effects. Experimental studies have clearly demonstrated the antifibrotic, antioxidant and metabolic effects of silybin; previous human studies were insufficient for confirming the clinical efficacy in chronic liver disease, while ongoing clinical trials are promising. On the basis of literature data, silybin seems a promising drug for chronic liver disease.

256 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Detailed mechanistic analyses revealed that silibinin targets signaling molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, proteases activation, adhesion, motility, invasiveness as well as the supportive tumor-microenvironment components, thereby inhibiting metastasis.
Abstract: Cancer is a major health problem around the world. Research efforts in the last few decades have been successful in providing better and effective treatments against both early stage and localized cancer, but clinical options against advanced metastatic stage/s of cancer remain limited. The high morbidity and mortality in most of the cancers are attributed to their metastatic spread to distant organs. Due to its extreme clinical relevance, metastasis has been extensively studied and is now understood as a highly complex biological event that involves multiple steps including acquisition of invasiveness by cancer cells, intravasation into circulatory system, survival in the circulation, arrest in microvasculature, extravasation, and growth at distant organs. The increasing understanding of molecular underpinnings of these events has provided excellent opportunity to target metastasis especially through nontoxic and biologically effective nutraceuticals. Silibinin, a popular dietary supplement isolated from milk thistle seed extracts, is one such natural agent that has shown biological efficacy through pleiotropic mechanisms against a variety of cancers and is currently in clinical trials. Recent preclinical studies have also shown strong efficacy of silibinin to target cancer cell’s migratory and invasive characteristics as well as their ability to metastasize to distant organs. Detailed mechanistic analyses revealed that silibinin targets signaling molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, proteases activation, adhesion, motility, invasiveness as well as the supportive tumor-microenvironment components, thereby inhibiting metastasis. Overall, the long history of human use, remarkable nontoxicity, and preclinical efficacy strongly favor the clinical use of silibinin against advanced metastatic cancers.

191 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to examine scientific studies concerning the effects derived from silymarin/silybin use in chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract: Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation. It also has a direct antiviral effect associated with its intravenous administration in hepatitis C virus infection. With respect to alcohol abuse, silymarin is able to increase cellular vitality and to reduce both lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis. Furthermore, silymarin/silybin use has important biological effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These substances antagonize the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, by intervening in various therapeutic targets: oxidative stress, insulin resistance, liver fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Silymarin is also used in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma that represent common end stages of different hepatopathies by modulating different molecular patterns. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine scientific studies concerning the effects derived from silymarin/silybin use in chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

170 citations


Cites background from "Effects and mechanisms of silibinin..."

  • ...proved that silybin significantly reduces HuH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5 human hepatoma cells growth by increasing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and p27/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 complexes, by reducing retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-phosphorylation and transcription factor E2F1/transcription factor dimerization Partner (DP) 1 complex, as well as by promoting induction of codifying genes for caspase 3–9 and reducing the levels of survivin, whose sovraexpression is associated with a reduction of cell death [140,141]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Mar 1997-Science
Abstract: Mapping of homozygous deletions on human chromosome 10q23 has led to the isolation of a candidate tumor suppressor gene, PTEN, that appears to be mutated at considerable frequency in human cancers. In preliminary screens, mutations of PTEN were detected in 31% (13/42) of glioblastoma cell lines and xenografts, 100% (4/4) of prostate cancer cell lines, 6% (4/65) of breast cancer cell lines and xenografts, and 17% (3/18) of primary glioblastomas. The predicted PTEN product has a protein tyrosine phosphatase domain and extensive homology to tensin, a protein that interacts with actin filaments at focal adhesions. These homologies suggest that PTEN may suppress tumor cell growth by antagonizing protein tyrosine kinases and may regulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis through interactions at focal adhesions.

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"Effects and mechanisms of silibinin..." refers background in this paper

  • .... PTEN is a negative regulator of PI3K-Akt signaling [ 29 ]...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma increased significantly among younger persons (40 to 60 years old) during the period from 1991 to 1995 as compared with earlier periods, and the age-specific incidence of this cancer has progressively shifted toward younger people.
Abstract: Background and Methods Clinical observations have suggested that the number of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased in the United States. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data base to determine the age-adjusted incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma from 1976 to 1995, data from the U.S. vital-statistics data base to determine age-adjusted mortality rates from 1981 to 1995, and data from the Department of Veterans Affairs to determine age-adjusted rates of hospitalization for the disease from 1983 to 1997. Results The incidence of histologically proved hepatocellular carcinoma increased from 1.4 per 100,000 population (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.4) for the period from 1976 to 1980 to 2.4 per 100,000 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.3 to 2.4) for the period from 1991 to 1995. Among black men, the incidence was 6.1 per 100,000 for the period from 1991 to 1995, and among white men, it was 2.8 per 100,000. There was a 41 percent increase in ...

2,853 citations


"Effects and mechanisms of silibinin..." refers background in this paper

  • .... Recent studies have noted a significant rise in the incidence of HCC in the United States in the past 2 decades [ 2 ]...

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TL;DR: The amino termini of histones extend from the nucleosomal core and are modified by acetyltransferases and deacetylases during the cell cycle, which may direct histone assembly and help regulate the unfolding and activity of genes.
Abstract: 'The amino termini of histones extend from the nucleosomal core and are modified by acetyltransferases and deacetylases during the cell cycle These acetylation patterns may direct histone assembly and help regulate the unfolding and activity of genes

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"Effects and mechanisms of silibinin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Histone acetylation alters chromatin conformation by m a k i n g p r o m o t e r r e g i o n s m o r e a c c e s s i b l e t o transcription factors and permissive to transcriptional activation [ 34 ]...

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  • ...Histone acetylation modifies nucleosome structure that leads to DNA relaxation, reduces the affinity of histone complexes with DNA, and enhances the access of transcriptional factor to DNA [ 34 ]...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results identify a strong candidate tumour suppressor gene at chromosome 10q23.3, whose loss of function appears to be associated with the oncogenesis of multiple human cancers.
Abstract: Deletions involving regions of chromosome 10 occur in the vast majority (> 90%) of human glioblastoma multiformes. A region at chromosome 10q23-24 was implicated to contain a tumour suppressor gene and the identification of homozygous deletions in four glioma cell lines further refined the location. We have identified a gene, designated MMAC1, that spans these deletions and encodes a widely expressed 5.5-kb mRNA. The predicted MMAC1 protein contains sequence motifs with significant homology to the catalytic domain of protein phosphatases and to the cytoskeletal proteins, tensin and auxilin. MMAC1 coding-region mutations were observed in a number of glioma, prostate, kidney and breast carcinoma cell lines or tumour specimens. Our results identify a strong candidate tumour suppressor gene at chromosome 10q23.3, whose loss of function appears to be associated with the oncogenesis of multiple human cancers.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data suggest that in normal tissues and lymphoid neoplasms, PCNA immunolocalization can be used as an index of cell proliferation, however, in some forms of neoplasia, including breast and gastric cancer and in vitro cell lines, the simple relation between PCNA expression and cell proliferation is lost.
Abstract: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a 36 kD nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle A monoclonal antibody, PC10, that recognizes a fixation and processing resistant epitope has been used to investigate its tissue distribution Nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity is found in the proliferative compartment of normal tissues PCNA immunoreactivity is induced in lectin stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in parallel with bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and the number of cells with PCNA immunoreactivity is reduced by induction of differentiation in HL60 cells In non-Hodgkin's lymphomas a linear relation between Ki67 and PCNA staining was demonstrated These data suggest that in normal tissues and lymphoid neoplasms, PCNA immunolocalization can be used as an index of cell proliferation However, in some forms of neoplasia, including breast and gastric cancer and in vitro cell lines, the simple relation between PCNA expression and cell proliferation is lost In some breast and pancreatic tumours there is apparent deregulation of PCNA with increased expression in tissues adjacent to the tumours The over-expression in some tumours and in adjacent morphologically normal tissue may represent autocrine or paracrine growth factor influence on PCNA gene expression

1,420 citations


"Effects and mechanisms of silibinin..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Both PCNA and Ki-67 are biomarkers for cell proliferation [ 40 ]...

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  • ...Ki-67 is a commonly used biomarker for cell proliferation [ 40 ]...

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