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Journal ArticleDOI

Mutation in the α-synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson's disease

27 Jun 1997-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 276, Iss: 5321, pp 2045-2047

TL;DR: A mutation was identified in the α-synuclein gene, which codes for a presynaptic protein thought to be involved in neuronal plasticity, in the Italian kindred and in three unrelated families of Greek origin with autosomal dominant inheritance for the PD phenotype.
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with a lifetime incidence of approximately 2 percent. A pattern of familial aggregation has been documented for the disorder, and it was recently reported that a PD susceptibility gene in a large Italian kindred is located on the long arm of human chromosome 4. A mutation was identified in the α-synuclein gene, which codes for a presynaptic protein thought to be involved in neuronal plasticity, in the Italian kindred and in three unrelated families of Greek origin with autosomal dominant inheritance for the PD phenotype. This finding of a specific molecular alteration associated with PD will facilitate the detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder.
Topics: Beta-synuclein (56%), PARK7 (56%), Parkin (56%), LRRK2 (55%), Synuclein (54%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
Robert H. Waterston1, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh2, Ewan Birney, Jane Rogers3  +219 moreInstitutions (26)
05 Dec 2002-Nature
TL;DR: The results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome are reported and an initial comparative analysis of the Mouse and human genomes is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences.
Abstract: The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

6,369 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
09 Apr 1998-Nature
TL;DR: Mutations in the newly identified gene appear to be responsible for the pathogenesis of Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, and the protein product is named ‘Parkin’.
Abstract: Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features1. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP)2,3 maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253 (ref. 4); the former is deleted in one Japanese AR-JP patient5. By positional cloning within this microdeletion, we have now isolated a complementary DNA clone of 2,960 base pairs with a 1,395-base-pair open reading frame, encoding a protein of 465 amino acids with moderate similarity to ubiquitin at the amino terminus and a RING-finger motif at the carboxy terminus. The gene spans more than 500 kilobases and has 12 exons, five of which (exons 3–7) are deleted in the patient. Four other AR-JP patients from three unrelated families have a deletion affecting exon 4 alone. A 4.5-kilobase transcript that is expressed in many human tissues but is abundant in the brain, including the substantia nigra, is shorter in brain tissue from one of the groups of exon-4-deleted patients. Mutations in the newly identified gene appear to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AR-JP, and we have therefore named the protein product ‘Parkin’.

4,613 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
William T. Dauer1, Serge Przedborski1Institutions (1)
11 Sep 2003-Neuron
TL;DR: PD models based on the manipulation of PD genes should prove valuable in elucidating important aspects of the disease, such as selective vulnerability of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons to the degenerative process.
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current PD medications treat symptoms; none halt or retard dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The main obstacle to developing neuroprotective therapies is a limited understanding of the key molecular events that provoke neurodegeneration. The discovery of PD genes has led to the hypothesis that misfolding of proteins and dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are pivotal to PD pathogenesis. Previously implicated culprits in PD neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, may also act in part by causing the accumulation of misfolded proteins, in addition to producing other deleterious events in dopaminergic neurons. Neurotoxin-based models (particularly MPTP) have been important in elucidating the molecular cascade of cell death in dopaminergic neurons. PD models based on the manipulation of PD genes should prove valuable in elucidating important aspects of the disease, such as selective vulnerability of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons to the degenerative process.

4,390 citations


Cites background from "Mutation in the α-synuclein gene id..."

  • ...…and form amyloid fibrilsTwo missense mutations [Ala53 → Thr (A53T) and Ala30 → Pro (A30P)] in -synuclein cause dominantly inherited may be responsible for its neurotoxicity in pathological situation such as PD and that pathogenic mutationsPD (Polymeropoulos et al., 1997; Kruger et al., 1998)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Christian Haass1, Dennis J. Selkoe1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Findings in other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that a broadly similar process of neuronal dysfunction is induced by diffusible oligomers of misfolded proteins.
Abstract: The distinct protein aggregates that are found in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases seem to cause these disorders. Small intermediates - soluble oligomers - in the aggregation process can confer synaptic dysfunction, whereas large, insoluble deposits might function as reservoirs of the bioactive oligomers. These emerging concepts are exemplified by Alzheimer's disease, in which amyloid beta-protein oligomers adversely affect synaptic structure and plasticity. Findings in other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that a broadly similar process of neuronal dysfunction is induced by diffusible oligomers of misfolded proteins.

4,185 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 Oct 2003-Science
Abstract: Mutations in the α-synuclein gene ( SNCA ) in the Contursi kindred ([ 1 ][1]) implicated this gene in Parkinson's disease (PD). Subsequently, α-synuclein was identified as the major component of Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of PD, and of glial cell cytoplasmic inclusions ([ 2 ][2]). We

3,662 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
R. Sherrington1, Evgeny I. Rogaev1, Yan Liang1, Ekaterina Rogaeva1  +29 moreInstitutions (11)
29 Jun 1995-Nature
TL;DR: A minimal cosegregating region containing the AD3 gene is defined, and at least 19 different transcripts encoded within this region corresponds to a novel gene whose product is predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains and resembles an integral membrane protein.
Abstract: Some cases of Alzheimer's disease are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Genetic linkage studies have mapped a locus (AD3) associated with susceptibility to a very aggressive form of Alzheimer's disease to chromosome 14q24.3. We have defined a minimal cosegregating region containing the AD3 gene, and isolated at least 19 different transcripts encoded within this region. One of these transcripts (S182) corresponds to a novel gene whose product is predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains and resembles an integral membrane protein. Five different missense mutations have been found that cosegregate with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Because these changes occurred in conserved domains of this gene, and are not present in normal controls, they are likely to be causative of AD3.

3,980 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Evgeny I. Rogaev1, R. Sherrington1, Ekaterina Rogaeva1, G. Levesque1  +17 moreInstitutions (3)
31 Aug 1995-Nature
TL;DR: Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of the E5-1 gene led to the discovery of two missense substitutions at conserved amino-acid residues in affected members of pedigrees with a form of familial AD that has a later age of onset than the AD3 subtype (50–70 years versus 30–60 years for AD3).
Abstract: We report the cloning of a novel gene (E5-1) encoded on chromosome 1 which has substantial nucleotide and amino-acid sequence similarity to the S182 gene on chromosome 14q24.3. Mutations, including three new missense mutations in the S182 gene, are associated with the AD3 subtype of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both the E5-1 and the S182 proteins are predicted to be integral membrane proteins with seven membrane-spanning domains, and a large exposed loop between the sixth and seventh transmembrane domains. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame (ORF) of the E5-1 gene led to the discovery of two missense substitutions at conserved amino-acid residues in affected members of pedigrees with a form of familial AD that has a later age of onset than the AD3 subtype (50-70 years versus 30-60 years for AD3). These observations imply that the E5-1 gene on chromosome 1 and the S182 gene on chromosome 14q24.3 are members of a family of genes (presenilins) with related functions, and indicates that mutations in conserved residues of E5-1 could also play a role in the genesis of AD. Our results also indicate that still other AD susceptibility genes exist.

2,005 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kenji Uéda1, Hisashi Fukushima, Eliezer Masliah, Yu Xia  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Primary structure predictions indicate that the NAC peptide sequence has a strong tendency to form beta-structures consistent with its association with amyloid, and the availability of the cDNA encoding full-length NACP should help to elucidate the mechanisms of amyloidsosis in AD.
Abstract: A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is a widespread amyloid deposition. We analyzed the entire amino acid sequences in an amyloid preparation and found, in addition to the major beta/A4-protein (A beta) fragment, two unknown peptides. We raised antibodies against synthetic peptides using subsequences of these peptides. These antibodies immunostained amyloid in neuritic and diffuse plaques as well as vascular amyloid. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the immunostaining was localized on amyloid fibrils. We have isolated an apparently full-length cDNA encoding a 140-amino-acid protein within which two previously unreported amyloid sequences are encoded in tandem in the most hydrophobic domain. We tentatively named this 35-amino acid peptide NAC (non-A beta component of AD amyloid) and its precursor NACP. NAC is the second component, after A beta, identified chemically in the purified AD amyloid preparation. Secondary structure predictions indicate that the NAC peptide sequence has a strong tendency to form beta-structures consistent with its association with amyloid. NACP is detected as a M(r) 19,000 protein in the cytosolic fraction of brain homogenates and comigrates on immunoblots with NACP synthesized in Escherichia coli from NACP cDNA. NACP mRNA is expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver, suggesting its ubiquitous and brain-specific functions. The availability of the cDNA encoding full-length NACP should help to elucidate the mechanisms of amyloidosis in AD.

1,324 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An antiserum against purified cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo and expression screening was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding synuclein, a 143 amino acid neuron-specific protein that is expressed only in nervous system tissue.
Abstract: We used an antiserum against purified cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo and expression screening to isolate a cDNA clone encoding synuclein, a 143 amino acid neuron-specific protein. A cDNA clone was also isolated from a rat brain cDNA library that encodes a highly homologous 140 amino acid protein. The amino terminal 100 amino acids of both proteins are comprised of an 11 amino acid repeating unit that contains a conserved core of 6 residues. The synuclein gene is expressed only in nervous system tissue, not in electric organ, muscle, liver, spleen, heart, or kidney. In the electric organ synapse Torpedo synuclein-immunoreactive proteins are found in 3 major molecular-weight classes of 17.5, 18.5, and 20.0 kDa. In the neuronal cell soma the 17.5 kDa species is predominant and immunoreactivity is localized to a portion of the nuclear envelope.

1,287 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Karen Hsiao1, Harry F. Baker, Timothy J. Crow, Mark Poulter  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
23 Mar 1989-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown here that PrP codon 102 is linked to the putative gene for the syndrome in two pedigrees, providing the best evidence to date that this familial condition is inherited despite also being infectious, and that substitution of leucine for proline at PrPcodon 102 may lead to the development of Gerstmann–Sträussler syndrome.
Abstract: Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome is a rare familial neurodegenerative condition that is vertically transmitted, in an apparently autosomal dominant way. It can also be horizontally transmitted to non-human primates and rodents through intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenates from patients with the disease. The exact incidence of the syndrome is unknown but is estimated to be between one and ten per hundred million. Patients initially suffer from ataxia or dementia and deteriorate until they die, in one to ten years. Protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) and PrP-immunoreactive amyloid plaques with characteristic morphology accumulate in the brains of these patients. Current diagnostic criteria for Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome incorporate clinical and neuropathological features, as animal transmission studies can be unreliable. PrP is implicated in the pathogenesis and transmission of the condition and in scrapie, an equivalent animal disease. It was discovered by enriching scrapie-infected hamster brain fractions for infectivity. Because there is compelling evidence that the scrapie isoform of PrP is a necessary component of the infectious particle, it seemed possible that the PrP gene on the short arm of human chromosome 20 in Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome might be abnormal. We show here that PrP codon 102 is linked to the putative gene for the syndrome in two pedigrees, providing the best evidence to date that this familial condition is inherited despite also being infectious, and that substitution of leucine for proline at PrP codon 102 may lead to the development of Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome.

851 citations


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