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Journal ArticleDOI

Photopolymerization in 3D Printing

20 Feb 2019-Vol. 1, Iss: 4, pp 593-611

AbstractThe field of 3D printing is continuing its rapid development in both academic and industrial research environments. The development of 3D printing technologies has opened new implementations in rapid prototyping, tooling, dentistry, microfluidics, biomedical devices, tissue engineering, drug delivery, etc. Among different 3D printing techniques, photopolymerization-based process (such as stereolithography and digital light processing) offers flexibility over the final properties of the 3D printed materials (such as optical, chemical, and mechanical properties) using versatile polymer chemistry. The strategy behind the 3D photopolymerization is based on using monomers/oligomers in liquid state (in the presence of photoinitiators) that can be photopolymerized (via radical or cationic mechanism) upon exposure to light source of different wavelengths (depending on the photoinitiator system). An overview of recent evolutions in the field of photopolymerization-based 3D printing and highlights of novel 3D print...

Topics: Photopolymer (58%), 3D printing (53%), Stereolithography (53%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A rapid visible light mediated RAFT polymerization process that provided facile spatial control over the network structure by varying the light dose to each layer of the 3D printed material and enabled post functionalization of the printed materials via secondary photopolymerization processes.
Abstract: Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization is a valuable tool for synthesizing macromolecules with controlled topologies and diverse chemical functionalities. However, the application of RAFT polymerization to additive-manufacturing processes has been prevented due to the slow polymerization rates of typical systems. In this work, we developed and optimized a rapid visible (green) light mediated RAFT polymerization process and applied it to an open-air 3D printing system. The reaction components are non-toxic, metal free and environmentally friendly, which tailors these systems toward biomaterial fabrication. The inclusion of RAFT agent in the photosensitive resin provided control over the mechanical properties of 3D printed materials and allowed these materials to be post-functionalized after 3D printing. Additionally, photoinduced spatiotemporal control of the network structure provided a one-pass approach to 4D printed materials. This RAFT-mediated 3D and 4D printing process should provide access to a range of new functional and stimuli-responsive materials.

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the pharmaceutical arena has caused a major shift towards the advancement of modern medicines, including drug products with different configurations and complex geometries. Otherwise challenging to create via conventional pharmaceutical techniques, 3D printing technologies have been explored for the fabrication of multi-drug loaded dosage forms to reduce pill burden and improve patient adherence. In this study, stereolithography (SLA), a vat polymerisation technique, was used to manufacture a multi-layer 3D printed oral dosage form (polyprintlet) incorporating four antihypertensive drugs including irbesartan, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine. Although successful in its fabrication, for the first time, we report an unexpected chemical reaction between a photopolymer and drug. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of a Michael addition reaction between the diacrylate group of the photoreactive monomer and the primary amine group of amlodipine. The study herein demonstrates the importance of careful selection of photocurable resins for the manufacture of drug-loaded oral dosage forms via SLA 3D printing technology.

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Improved tissue adhesion of the bioinspired MN allows for more stable and robust performance for drug delivery, biofluid collection, and biosensing.

58 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
04 Jun 2020
TL;DR: This review paper summarizes a few typical applications of P μSL including mechanical metamaterials, optical components, 4D printing, bioinspired materials and biomedical applications, and offers perspectives on the directions of the further development of PμSL based 3D printing technology.
Abstract: Projection Micro Stereolithography (PμSL) is a high-resolution (up to 0.6 μm) 3D printing technology based on area projection triggered photopolymerization, and capable of fabricating complex 3D architectures covering multiple scales and with multiple materials. This paper reviews the recent development of the PμSL based 3D printing technologies, together with the related applications. It introduces the working principle, the commercialized products, and the recent multiscale, multimaterial printing capability of PμSL as well as some functional photopolymers that are suitable to PμSL. This review paper also summarizes a few typical applications of PμSL including mechanical metamaterials, optical components, 4D printing, bioinspired materials and biomedical applications, and offers perspectives on the directions of the further development of PμSL based 3D printing technology.

52 citations


Cites background from "Photopolymerization in 3D Printing"

  • ...The photopolymerization is a free radical based polymerization, and includes four main steps: radical generation, initiation, propagation, and termination [62, 63]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2020-Small
TL;DR: In this work, crosslinking methods used in 3D bioprinting studies are reviewed, parameters that affect bioink chemistry are discussed, and the potential toward improving crossl linking outcomes and construct performance is highlighted.
Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently advanced as an important tool to produce viable constructs that can be used for regenerative purposes or as tissue models. To develop biomimetic and sustainable 3D constructs, several important processing aspects need to be considered, among which crosslinking is most important for achieving desirable biomechanical stability of printed structures, which is reflected in subsequent behavior and use of these constructs. In this work, crosslinking methods used in 3D bioprinting studies are reviewed, parameters that affect bioink chemistry are discussed, and the potential toward improving crosslinking outcomes and construct performance is highlighted. Furthermore, current challenges and future prospects are discussed. Due to the direct connection between crosslinking methods and properties of 3D bioprinted structures, this Review can provide a basis for developing necessary modifications to the design and manufacturing process of advanced tissue-like constructs in future.

45 citations


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