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Journal ArticleDOI

Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012.

01 Mar 2015-International Journal of Cancer (Int J Cancer)-Vol. 136, Iss: 5
Abstract: Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large “areas” of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths).
Topics: Causes of cancer (58%), Cancer (56%)
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TL;DR: A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.
Abstract: Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.

21,062 citations


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TL;DR: Overall survival was longer and fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred with nivolumab than with everolimus among patients with previously treated advanced renal-cell carcinoma.
Abstract: BackgroundNivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, was associated with encouraging overall survival in uncontrolled studies involving previously treated patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study compared nivolumab with everolimus in patients with renal-cell carcinoma who had received previous treatment. MethodsA total of 821 patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma for which they had received previous treatment with one or two regimens of antiangiogenic therapy were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive 3 mg of nivolumab per kilogram of body weight intravenously every 2 weeks or a 10-mg everolimus tablet orally once daily. The primary end point was overall survival. The secondary end points included the objective response rate and safety. ResultsThe median overall survival was 25.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.8 to not estimable) with nivolumab and 19.6 months (95% CI, 17.6 to 23.1) with everolimus. The haz...

3,838 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
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Drew University of Medicine and Science60, University of California, Los Angeles61, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences62, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research63, Addis Ababa University64, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill65, Yale University66, University of Alberta67, University of São Paulo68, University of London69, Haramaya University70, University of Otago71, University of Birmingham72, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research73, University of Iowa74, University of South Florida75, University of Oslo76, World Bank77, Anglia Ruskin University78, Danube University Krems79, University of Cambridge80, University of Trnava81, Ohio State University82, German Cancer Research Center83, Mayo Clinic84, University of Leicester85, University of California, San Francisco86, Australian National University87, University of New South Wales88, Telethon Institute for Child Health Research89, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana90, State University of New York System91, National University of Colombia92, University of Costa Rica93, University of Valencia94, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute95, Albany Medical College96, Peking Union Medical College97, University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan98, University of the Witwatersrand99, University of Zambia100, University of Copenhagen101, Christian Medical College & Hospital102, University of Adelaide103, University of Salerno104, Walden University105, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust106, University of Porto107, Wellcome Trust108, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy109, Griffith University110, University of Colorado System111, University of Brighton112, University of Peradeniya113, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina114, University of Sydney115, Norwegian Institute of Public Health116, Arba Minch University117, Russian Academy of Sciences118, Arak University119, Tehran University of Medical Sciences120, University of Louisville121, Universidade Aberta122, Universidade Federal de Sergipe123, VA Boston Healthcare System124, Queen Mary University of London125, Bielefeld University126, Academy of Medical Sciences, United Kingdom127, University of Edinburgh128, James Cook University129, Imperial College London130, University of Tasmania131, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich132, Wageningen University and Research Centre133, Howard University134, University of Tokyo135, Brandeis University136, University of Massachusetts System137, University of British Columbia138, West Virginia University139, University of Delhi140, University of Bergen141, Arabian Gulf University142, Hamdan bin Mohammed e-University143, University of New Mexico144, University of Western Australia145, Sun Yat-sen University146, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology147, University of Barcelona148, Columbia University149, Simon Fraser University150, Yokohama City University151, Albert Einstein College of Medicine152, Baylor College of Medicine153, Tunis University154, Central South University155, George Washington University156, Birzeit University157, Ghent University158, International Agency for Research on Cancer159, Aarhus University160, United States Agency for International Development161, George Mason University162, Shahid Beheshti University163, University of Kragujevac164, Virginia Commonwealth University165, University College Cork166, Fudan University167, Case Western Reserve University168, Pompeu Fabra University169, All India Institute of Medical Sciences170, Oklahoma State University–Stillwater171, Swansea University172, South African Medical Research Council173, Jordan University of Science and Technology174, New Generation University College175, New York Medical College176, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul177, Southern University College178, Northeastern University179, University of Cincinnati180, Brown University181, Université de Montréal182, Hacettepe University183, Arkansas State University184, Boston University185, Johns Hopkins University186, Wayne State University187, Boston Children's Hospital188, Emory University189, San Francisco VA Medical Center190, University of Bari191, University of Liverpool192, Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust193, National University of Singapore194, Royal Children's Hospital195, Mansoura University196, University of Pennsylvania197, CEU Cardinal Herrera University198, University of York199, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia200, University of Gondar201, Florida Atlantic University202, Alfaisal University203, United Nations204, Helsinki University Central Hospital205, University of Helsinki206, Tufts University207, Curtin University208, Pacific Institute209, Ahmadu Bello University210, Indian Council of Medical Research211, Queensland University of Technology212, Universiti Sains Malaysia213, Stellenbosch University214, University of Ulm215, University of KwaZulu-Natal216, City University of New York217, SIDI218, University of Tampere219, Duy Tan University220, Makerere University221, University of Western Sydney222, Teikyo University223, Autonomous University of Chile224, University of Arizona225, Autonomous University of Madrid226, Karabük University227, University of the West of England228, Kosin University229, Sungkyunkwan University230, University of Calgary231, Flinders University232, Shanghai Jiao Tong University233, Durban University of Technology234, University of Virginia235, Brigham Young University236, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health237, BRAC238, Hamad Medical Corporation239, University of Missouri240, Yonsei University241, Suez Canal University242, Golestan University243, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences244, National University of Malaysia245, Marshall University246, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina247, North-West University248, University of Bath249, An-Najah National University250, Indian Institutes of Technology251, Nationwide Children's Hospital252, Korea University253, Northumbria University254, Reykjavík University255, University of Brasília256, Northwestern University257, Banaras Hindu University258, Dartmouth College259, University of Stavanger260, University of Western Ontario261, International Medical University262, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens263, University of California, San Diego264, University of California, Irvine265, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign266, Tampere University of Technology267, Colgate University268, Auckland University of Technology269, Outcomes Research Consortium270, WorldFish271, Monash University272, New York University273, Jagiellonian University274, Wrocław Medical University275, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki276, Hanoi Medical University277, Cleveland Clinic278, University of Warwick279, Dalhousie University280, University of Bologna281, National Research University – Higher School of Economics282, Georgetown University283, McGill University284, Seoul National University285, Nanjing University286, Duke University287, University of Zurich288, University of Hong Kong289, Kyoto University290, Jackson State University291, French Institute of Health and Medical Research292, Leibniz Association293
08 Oct 2016-The Lancet
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015, finding several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS.
Abstract: Summary Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3,795 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Christina Fitzmaurice1, Christina Fitzmaurice2, Christina Fitzmaurice3, Tomi Akinyemiju4, Faris Lami, Tahiya Alam2, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei5, Christine Allen2, Ubai Alsharif6, Nelson Alvis-Guzman7, Erfan Amini8, Benjamin O. Anderson3, Olatunde Aremu9, Al Artaman10, Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom11, Reza Assadi12, Tesfay Mehari Atey11, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ashish Awasthi, Huda Omer Ba Saleem, Aleksandra Barac13, James R. Bennett2, Isabela M. Benseñor14, Nickhill Bhakta15, Hermann Brenner16, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela17, Ferrán Catalá-López18, Ferrán Catalá-López19, Jee-Young Jasmine Choi20, Jee-Young Jasmine Choi21, Devasahayam J. Christopher22, Sheng-Chia Chung23, Maria Paula Curado, Lalit Dandona2, Lalit Dandona24, Rakhi Dandona2, Rakhi Dandona24, José Neves25, Subhojit Dey, Samath D Dharmaratne26, David Teye Doku27, David Teye Doku28, Tim Driscoll29, Manisha Dubey30, Hedyeh Ebrahimi8, Dumessa Edessa31, Ziad El-Khatib32, Ziad El-Khatib33, Aman Yesuf Endries34, Florian Fischer35, Lisa M. Force15, Kyle J Foreman36, Kyle J Foreman2, Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot37, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Giuseppe Grosso, Rahul Gupta38, Bishal Gyawali39, Randah R. Hamadeh40, Samer Hamidi41, James D. Harvey2, Hamid Yimam Hassen42, Roderick J. Hay43, Simon I. Hay2, Simon I. Hay44, Behzad Heibati45, Molla Kahssay Hiluf, Nobuyuki Horita46, H. Dean Hosgood47, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Kaire Innos48, Farhad Islami49, Mihajlo Jakovljevic50, Mihajlo Jakovljevic3, Sarah Charlotte Johnson2, Jost B. Jonas51, Amir Kasaeian8, Tesfaye Dessale Kassa11, Yousef Khader52, Ejaz Ahmad Khan53, Gulfaraz Khan54, Young-Ho Khang21, Young-Ho Khang55, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi56, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi57, Jagdish Khubchandani58, Jacek A. Kopec59, G Anil Kumar24, Michael Kutz2, Deepesh Lad60, Alessandra Lafranconi61, Qing Lan, Yirga Legesse11, James Leigh29, Shai Linn62, Raimundas Lunevicius63, Raimundas Lunevicius64, Azeem Majeed36, Reza Malekzadeh8, Deborah Carvalho Malta65, Lorenzo G. Mantovani61, Brian J. McMahon66, Toni Meier67, Yohannes Adama Melaku11, Yohannes Adama Melaku68, Mulugeta Melku69, Peter Memiah70, Walter Mendoza71, Tuomo J. Meretoja72, Haftay Berhane Mezgebe11, Ted R. Miller73, Ted R. Miller74, Shafiu Mohammed51, Shafiu Mohammed75, Ali H. Mokdad2, Mahmood Moosazadeh5, Paula Moraga76, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi8, Vinay Nangia, Cuong Tat Nguyen77, Vuong Minh Nong77, Felix Akpojene Ogbo29, Andrew T Olagunju78, Andrew T Olagunju68, Andrew T Olagunju79, Padukudru Anand Mahesh80, Eun-Kee Park81, Tejas Patel, David M. Pereira25, Farhad Pishgar8, Maarten J. Postma82, Maarten J. Postma83, Farshad Pourmalek59, Mostafa Qorbani, Anwar Rafay, Salman Rawaf36, David Laith Rawaf23, David Laith Rawaf36, Gholamreza Roshandel84, Gholamreza Roshandel8, Saeid Safiri85, Hamideh Salimzadeh8, Juan Sanabria86, Juan Sanabria87, Milena M Santric Milicevic13, Benn Sartorius88, Benn Sartorius89, Maheswar Satpathy90, Sadaf G. Sepanlou8, Katya Anne Shackelford2, Masood Ali Shaikh, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini8, Jun She91, Min-Jeong Shin92, Ivy Shiue93, Ivy Shiue67, Mark G. Shrime32, Abiy Hiruye Sinke, Mekonnen Sisay31, Amber Sligar2, Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan75, Bryan L. Sykes94, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos18, Gizachew Assefa Tessema68, Gizachew Assefa Tessema69, Roman Topor-Madry95, Roman Topor-Madry96, Tung Thanh Tran77, Bach Xuan Tran97, Bach Xuan Tran98, Kingsley N. Ukwaja, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov99, Stein Emil Vollset2, Elisabete Weiderpass, Hywel C Williams100, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Naohiro Yonemoto101, Mustafa Z. Younis102, Christopher J L Murray2, Mohsen Naghavi2 
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center1, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation2, University of Washington3, University of Alabama at Birmingham4, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences5, Charité6, University of Cartagena7, Tehran University of Medical Sciences8, Birmingham City University9, University of Manitoba10, Mekelle University11, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences12, University of Belgrade13, University of São Paulo14, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital15, German Cancer Research Center16, National University of Colombia17, University of Valencia18, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute19, Seoul National University Hospital20, Seoul National University21, Christian Medical College & Hospital22, University College London23, Public Health Foundation of India24, University of Porto25, University of Peradeniya26, University of Tampere27, University of Cape Coast28, University of Sydney29, International Institute for Population Sciences30, Haramaya University31, Harvard University32, Karolinska Institutet33, Arba Minch University34, Bielefeld University35, Imperial College London36, College of Health Sciences, Bahrain37, West Virginia University38, Aarhus University39, Arabian Gulf University40, Hamdan bin Mohammed e-University41, Mizan–Tepi University42, King's College London43, University of Oxford44, Iran University of Medical Sciences45, Yokohama City University46, Albert Einstein College of Medicine47, National Institutes of Health48, American Cancer Society49, University of Kragujevac50, Heidelberg University51, Jordan University of Science and Technology52, Health Services Academy53, United Arab Emirates University54, New Generation University College55, Education and Research Network56, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences57, Ball State University58, University of British Columbia59, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research60, University of Milano-Bicocca61, University of Haifa62, University of Liverpool63, National Health Service64, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais65, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium66, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg67, University of Adelaide68, University of Gondar69, University of West Florida70, United Nations Population Fund71, University of Helsinki72, Curtin University73, Pacific Institute74, Ahmadu Bello University75, Lancaster University76, Duy Tan University77, University of Lagos78, Lagos University Teaching Hospital79, JSS Medical College80, Kosin University81, University of Groningen82, University Medical Center Groningen83, Golestan University84, University of Maragheh85, Case Western Reserve University86, Marshall University87, University of KwaZulu-Natal88, South African Medical Research Council89, Utkal University90, Fudan University91, Korea University92, University of Edinburgh93, University of California, Irvine94, Jagiellonian University Medical College95, Wrocław Medical University96, Hanoi Medical University97, Johns Hopkins University98, National Research University – Higher School of Economics99, University of Nottingham100, Kyoto University101, Jackson State University102
01 Nov 2018-JAMA Oncology
Abstract: Importance The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required. Objective To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus. Evidence Review Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition. Findings In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, −1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories. Conclusions and Relevance Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.

3,484 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sources and methods used in compiling the cancer statistics in 185 countries are reviewed, and uncertainty intervals are now provided for the estimated sex‐ and site‐specific all‐ages number of new cancer cases and cancer deaths.
Abstract: Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 36 cancers and for all cancers combined for the year 2018 are now available in the GLOBOCAN 2018 database, compiled and disseminated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This paper reviews the sources and methods used in compiling the cancer statistics in 185 countries. The validity of the national estimates depends upon the representativeness of the source information, and to take into account possible sources of bias, uncertainty intervals are now provided for the estimated sex- and site-specific all-ages number of new cancer cases and cancer deaths. We briefly describe the key results globally and by world region. There were an estimated 18.1 million (95% UI: 17.5-18.7 million) new cases of cancer (17 million excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million (95% UI: 9.3-9.8 million) deaths from cancer (9.5 million excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) worldwide in 2018.

3,021 citations


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10,051 citations



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01 May 2014-
TL;DR: There is substantial global variation in the relative burden of stroke compared with IHD, and the disproportionate burden from stroke for many lower-income countries suggests that distinct interventions may be required.
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6,287 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Europe alongside the description of the varying distribution of common cancers at both the regional and country level provide a basis for establishing priorities to cancer control actions in Europe.
Abstract: Introduction: Cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 25 cancers are presented for the 40 countries in the four United Nations-defined areas of Europe and for the European Union (EU-27) for 2012. Methods: We used statistical models to estimate national incidence and mortality rates in 2012 from recently-published data, predicting incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 from recent trends, wherever possible. The estimated rates in 2012 were applied to the correspond- ing population estimates to obtain the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2012. Results: There were an estimated 3.45 million new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. The most common cancer sites were cancers of the female breast (464,000 cases), followed by colorectal (447,000), pros- tate (417,000) and lung (410,000). These four cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Europe. The most common causes of death from cancer were cancers of the lung (353,000 deaths), colorectal (215,000), breast (131,000) and stomach (107,000). In the Euro- pean Union, the estimated numbers of new cases of cancer were approximately 1.4 million

4,476 citations


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