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Government of Canada

GovernmentOttawa, Ontario, Canada
About: Government of Canada is a(n) government organization based out in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Monetary policy & Debt. The organization has 796 authors who have published 886 publication(s) receiving 21366 citation(s). The organization is also known as: federal government of Canada & Her Majesty's Government.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nature is perceived and valued in starkly different and often conflicting ways. This paper presents the rationale for the inclusive valuation of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) in decision making, as well as broad methodological steps for doing so. While developed within the context of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), this approach is more widely applicable to initiatives at the knowledge–policy interface, which require a pluralistic approach to recognizing the diversity of values. We argue that transformative practices aiming at sustainable futures would benefit from embracing such diversity, which require recognizing and addressing power relationships across stakeholder groups that hold different values on human nature-relations and NCP.

729 citations

Posted Content
Abstract: The paper assesses, using seven structural models used heavily by policymaking institutions, the effectiveness of temporary fiscal stimulus. Models can, more easily than empirical studies, account for differences between fiscal instruments, for differences between structural characteristics of the economy, and for monetary-fiscal policy interactions. Findings are: (i) There is substantial agreement across models on the sizes of fiscal multipliers. (ii) The sizes of spending and targeted transfers multipliers are large. (iii) Fiscal policy is most effective if it has some persistence and if monetary policy accommodates it. (iv) The perception of permanent fiscal stimulus leads to significantly lower initial multipliers.

481 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Apr 1996-Nature
Abstract: METHYLMERCURY can accumulate in fish to concentrations that threaten human health1. Fish methylmercury concentrations are high in many reservoirs2 and acidic lakes3, and also in many remote lakes4,5—a fact that may be related to increased atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically mobilized mercury during the past few decades6. Although sources of methylmercury to lakes and reservoirs are known7, in-lake destruction has not been demonstrated to occur at the low concentrations found in most water bodies. Here we report in situ incubations of lake water that show that methylmercury is decomposed by photo- degradation in surface waters. This process is abiotic and the rate is first-order with respect to methylmercury concentration and the intensity of solar radiation. In our study lake, the calculated annual rates of methylmercury photodegradation are almost double the estimated external inputs of methylmercury from rain, snow, streamflow and land runoff, implying the existence of a large source of methylmercury from bottom sediments. Photodegradation could also be an important process in the mercury cycle of other aquatic systems. This discovery fundamentally changes our understanding of aquatic mercury cycling, and challenges the long-accepted view that microbial demethylation dominates methylmercury degradation in natural fresh waters.

348 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bacterial genera isolated from fish intestines vary with salinity, antibiotics, chromic oxide, diet and dietary components such as linoleic acid, and display day-to-day fluctuations.
Abstract: Microflora isolated from fish intestines have been described for a limited number of salmonid fish species. The size of the microbial population of salmonids appears to vary within different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The genera present in the gastrointestinal tract seem to be those which can survive and multiply in the intestinal tract. The predominant bacteria isolated from the salmonid gut are aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Few investigations have evaluated obligate anaerobes in the digestive tract of salmonids, and these studies have suggested that the population levels of obligate anaerobes are lower than those of facultative anaerobes. The bacterial genera isolated from fish intestines vary with salinity, antibiotics, chromic oxide, diet and dietary components such as linoleic acid, and display day-to-day fluctuations. Acinelobacter spp., Enterobacter spp. and Pseu-domonas spp. are regarded as autochthonous in Oncorhynchus species, while Aeromonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp. are suggested as autochthonous in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus(L.).

336 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Introduction Accountability is a cornerstone of public governance and management because it constitutes the principle that informs the processes whereby those who hold and exercise public authority are held to account. Although accountability regimes vary in important respects among political systems, taken collectively they encompass processes whereby citizens hold their governors to account for their behaviour and performance directly through elections; the representatives of citizens in legislative assemblies hold political executives and public servants accountable through mechanisms of public scrutiny and audit; political executives hold their subordinate officials accountable through hierarchical structures of authority and responsibility; and, among other things, courts and various administrative tribunals and commissions hold legislatures, executives or administrative officers accountable to the law (Cooper, 1995; Stone, 1995; Mulgan, 1997). The purposes that accountability are meant to serve are essentially threefold, although they overlap in several ways. The first is to control for the abuse and misuse of public authority. The second is to provide assurancein respect to the use of public resources and adherence to the law and public service values. The third is to encourage and promote learning in pursuit of continuous improvement in governance and public management. Because accountability is an integral dimension of governance and public management it cannot be affected by the extent to which governance and public management are subject to ever increasing complexity (Thomas, 1998). Governments everywhere are under increasing pressures to be both more productive and more effective — to achieve not only the greatest degree of economy and efficiency possible but also to secure desired outcomes in respect to economic

293 citations


Authors

Showing all 796 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Kingston H. G. Mills9231329630
David W. Schindler8521739792
Martha C. Anderson7034020288
Hui Li6224614395
Lei Zhang5814621872
Michael J. Vanni5512411714
Cars Hommes5425014984
Richard E. Caves5311524552
John W. M. Rudd51709446
Karen A. Kidd4716310255
Kenneth O. Hill431268842
Steven H. Ferguson432256797
Derwyn C. Johnson411038208
Kevin E. Percy40915167
Guy Ampleman401284706
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202147
202044
201931
201832
201736
201628