Forest Research Institute
Facility•Dehra Dūn, India•
About: Forest Research Institute is a(n) facility organization based out in Dehra Dūn, India. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Forest management. The organization has 5320 authors who have published 7625 publication(s) receiving 185876 citation(s).
Topics: Population, Forest management, Picea abies, Forest ecology, Scots pine
Papers published on a yearly basis
United States Geological Survey1, University of Arizona2, University of Batna3, Oregon State University4, Los Alamos National Laboratory5, Centre national de la recherche scientifique6, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research7, Natural Resources Canada8, University of California, Berkeley9, University of Granada10, Northern Research Institute11, Forest Research Institute12, Food and Agriculture Organization13, University of Montana14, Northern Arizona University15
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the first global assessment of recent tree mortality attributed to drought and heat stress and identify key information gaps and scientific uncertainties that currently hinder our ability to predict tree mortality in response to climate change and emphasizes the need for a globally coordinated observation system.
Abstract: Greenhouse gas emissions have significantly altered global climate, and will continue to do so in the future. Increases in the frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress associated with climate change could fundamentally alter the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Of particular concern are potential increases in tree mortality associated with climate-induced physiological stress and interactions with other climate-mediated processes such as insect outbreaks and wildfire. Despite this risk, existing projections of tree mortality are based on models that lack functionally realistic mortality mechanisms, and there has been no attempt to track observations of climate-driven tree mortality globally. Here we present the first global assessment of recent tree mortality attributed to drought and heat stress. Although episodic mortality occurs in the absence of climate change, studies compiled here suggest that at least some of the world's forested ecosystems already may be responding to climate change and raise concern that forests may become increasingly vulnerable to higher background tree mortality rates and die-off in response to future warming and drought, even in environments that are not normally considered water-limited. This further suggests risks to ecosystem services, including the loss of sequestered forest carbon and associated atmospheric feedbacks. Our review also identifies key information gaps and scientific uncertainties that currently hinder our ability to predict tree mortality in response to climate change and emphasizes the need for a globally coordinated observation system. Overall, our review reveals the potential for amplified tree mortality due to drought and heat in forests worldwide.
Copenhagen University Hospital1, French Institute of Health and Medical Research2, St George's, University of London3, University of Gothenburg4, The Catholic University of America5, University of Western Australia6, Columbia University7, University of Milan8, New York University9, Forest Research Institute10, University of Amsterdam11, Hacettepe University12, University of Copenhagen13
01 Dec 2010-European Heart Journal
TL;DR: The robust and specific association between elevated Lp(a) levels and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, together with recent genetic findings, indicates that elevated LP(a), like elevated LDL-cholesterol, is causally related to premature CVD/CHD.
Abstract: AIMS: The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The robust and specific association between elevated Lp(a) levels and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, together with recent genetic findings, indicates that elevated Lp(a), like elevated LDL-cholesterol, is causally related to premature CVD/CHD. The association is continuous without a threshold or dependence on LDL- or non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, elevated Lp(a) levels may either induce a prothrombotic/anti-fibrinolytic effect as apolipoprotein(a) resembles both plasminogen and plasmin but has no fibrinolytic activity, or may accelerate atherosclerosis because, like LDL, the Lp(a) particle is cholesterol-rich, or both. We advise that Lp(a) be measured once, using an isoform-insensitive assay, in subjects at intermediate or high CVD/CHD risk with premature CVD, familial hypercholesterolaemia, a family history of premature CVD and/or elevated Lp(a), recurrent CVD despite statin treatment, ≥3% 10-year risk of fatal CVD according to European guidelines, and/or ≥10% 10-year risk of fatal + non-fatal CHD according to US guidelines. As a secondary priority after LDL-cholesterol reduction, we recommend a desirable level for Lp(a) <80th percentile (less than ∼50 mg/dL). Treatment should primarily be niacin 1-3 g/day, as a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled intervention trials demonstrates reduced CVD by niacin treatment. In extreme cases, LDL-apheresis is efficacious in removing Lp(a). CONCLUSION: We recommend screening for elevated Lp(a) in those at intermediate or high CVD/CHD risk, a desirable level <50 mg/dL as a function of global cardiovascular risk, and use of niacin for Lp(a) and CVD/CHD risk reduction.
TL;DR: The degree of aggregation in the distribution of 1768 tree species is examined based on the average density of conspecific trees in circular neighborhoods around each tree, and it is found that nearly every species was more aggregated than a random distribution.
Abstract: Fully mapped tree census plots of large area, 25 to 52 hectares, have now been completed at six different sites in tropical forests, including dry deciduous to wet evergreen forest on two continents. One of the main goals of these plots has been to evaluate spatial patterns in tropical tree populations. Here the degree of aggregation in the distribution of 1768 tree species is examined based on the average density of conspecific trees in circular neighborhoods around each tree. When all individuals larger than 1 centimeter in stem diameter were included, nearly every species was more aggregated than a random distribution. Considering only larger trees (≥ 10 centimeters in diameter), the pattern persisted, with most species being more aggregated than random. Rare species were more aggregated than common species. All six forests were very similar in all the particulars of these results.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences1, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna2, KORA Organics3, University of Zagreb4, Spanish National Research Council5, The Nature Conservancy6, University of Porto7, University of Tirana8, University of Bern9, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague10, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests11, Sapienza University of Rome12, Transilvania University of Brașov13, Forest Research Institute14, University of Ljubljana15, University of Sarajevo16, Mendel University17, Friends of the Earth International18, Environment Agency19, University of Göttingen20, University of Warsaw21, American Museum of Natural History22, Norwegian University of Life Sciences23, Hedmark University College24, Sofia University25
TL;DR: It is shown that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records, and coexistence alongside humans has become possible, argue the authors.
Abstract: The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success include protective legislation, supportive public opinion, and a variety of practices making coexistence between large carnivores and people possible. The European situation reveals that large carnivores and people can share the same landscape.
French Institute of Health and Medical Research1, Columbia University2, The Catholic University of America3, University of Gothenburg4, University of Milan5, New York University6, Forest Research Institute7, University of Amsterdam8, University of Copenhagen9, St George's, University of London10, Hacettepe University11, University of Western Australia12
01 Jun 2011-European Heart Journal
TL;DR: Recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal, and that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides, a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C may provide further benefit.
Abstract: Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal.
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|Glenn D. Prestwich||88||690||42758|
|John K. Volkman||78||212||21931|
|Petri T. Kovanen||77||432||27171|
|Louis A. Schipper||53||192||9224|
|Sang Young Lee||53||271||9917|
|Francis M. Kelliher||49||124||8599|
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