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Author

Kari Alitalo

Bio: Kari Alitalo is an academic researcher from University of Helsinki. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Angiogenesis & Vascular endothelial growth factor C. The author has an hindex of 174, co-authored 817 publication(s) receiving 114231 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Kari Alitalo include Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto & Cornell University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown here that VEGF-A controls angiogenic sprouting in the early postnatal retina by guiding filopodial extension from specialized endothelial cells situated at the tips of the vascular sprouts.
Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is a major regulator of blood vessel formation and function. It controls several processes in endothelial cells, such as proliferation, survival, and migration, but it is not known how these are coordinately regulated to result in more complex morphogenetic events, such as tubular sprouting, fusion, and network formation. We show here that VEGF-A controls angiogenic sprouting in the early postnatal retina by guiding filopodial extension from specialized endothelial cells situated at the tips of the vascular sprouts. The tip cells respond to VEGF-A only by guided migration; the proliferative response to VEGF-A occurs in the sprout stalks. These two cellular responses are both mediated by agonistic activity of VEGF-A on VEGF receptor 2. Whereas tip cell migration depends on a gradient of VEGF-A, proliferation is regulated by its concentration. Thus, vessel patterning during retinal angiogenesis depends on the balance between two different qualities of the extracellular VEGF-A distribution, which regulate distinct cellular responses in defined populations of endothelial cells.

2,506 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The angiogenic growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels coordinates several biological processes such as cell proliferation, guided migration, differentiation and cell–cell communication.
Abstract: Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels form extensive networks that are essential for the transport of fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells within the large and complex bodies of vertebrates. Both of these vascular structures are lined with endothelial cells that integrate functionally into different organs, acquire tissue-specific specialization and retain plasticity; thereby, they permit growth during tissue repair or in disease settings. The angiogenic growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels coordinates several biological processes such as cell proliferation, guided migration, differentiation and cell-cell communication.

1,684 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: VEGF‐C is a novel regulator of endothelia, and its effects may extend beyond the lymphatic system, where Flt4 is expressed.
Abstract: Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, and the permeability of blood vessels are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via its two known receptors Flt1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR/Flk-1 (VEGFR-2) The Flt4 receptor tyrosine kinase is related to the VEGF receptors, but does not bind VEGF and its expression becomes restricted mainly to lymphatic endothelia during development In this study, we have purified the Flt4 ligand, VEGF-C, and cloned its cDNA from human prostatic carcinoma cells While VEGF-C is homologous to other members of the VEGF/platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) family, its C-terminal half contains extra cysteine-rich motifs characteristic of a protein component of silk produced by the larval salivary glands of the midge, Chironomus tentans VEGF-C is proteolytically processed, binds Flt4, which we rename as VEGFR-3 and induces tyrosine autophosphorylation of VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2 In addition, VEGF-C stimulated the migration of bovine capillary endothelial cells in collagen gel VEGF-C is thus a novel regulator of endothelia, and its effects may extend beyond the lymphatic system, where Flt4 is expressed

1,683 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The occurrence and biological significance of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis within human breast cancers after orthotopic transplantation onto nude mice are established and VEGF-C is identified as a molecular link between tumor lymphang iogenesis and metastasis.
Abstract: Metastasis of breast cancer occurs primarily through the lymphatic system, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic factor for the disease. Whereas the significance of angiogenesis for tumor progression has been well documented, the ability of tumor cells to induce the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) and the presence of intratumoral lymphatic vessels have been controversial. Using a novel marker for lymphatic endothelium, LYVE-1, we demonstrate here the occurrence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis within human breast cancers after orthotopic transplantation onto nude mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C overexpression in breast cancer cells potently increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, resulting in significantly enhanced metastasis to regional lymph nodes and to lungs. The degree of tumor lymphangiogenesis was highly correlated with the extent of lymph node and lung metastases. These results establish the occurrence and biological significance of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer and identify VEGF-C as a molecular link between tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis.

1,593 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that FLT4 is a marker for lymphatic vessels and some high endothelial venules in human adult tissues, and support the theory on the venous origin of lymphatic Vessels.
Abstract: We have recently cloned the human fms-like tyrosine kinase 4 gene FLT4, whose protein product is related to two vascular endothelial growth factor receptors FLT1 and KDR/FLK1. Here the expression of FLT4 has been analyzed by in situ hybridization during mouse embryogenesis and in adult human tissues. The FLT4 mRNA signals first became detectable in the angioblasts of head mesenchyme, the cardinal vein, and extraembryonally in the allantois of 8.5-day postcoitus (p.c.) embryos. In 12.5-day p.c. embryos, the FLT4 signal decorated developing venous and presumptive lymphatic endothelia, but arterial endothelia were negative. During later stages of development, FLT4 mRNA became restricted to vascular plexuses devoid of red cells, representing developing lymphatic vessels. Only the lymphatic endothelia and some high endothelial venules expressed FLT4 mRNA in adult human tissues. Increased expression occurred in lymphatic sinuses in metastatic lymph nodes and in lymphangioma. Our results suggest that FLT4 is a marker for lymphatic vessels and some high endothelial venules in human adult tissues. They also support the theory on the venous origin of lymphatic vessels.

1,379 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 2011-Cell
TL;DR: Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.
Abstract: The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

42,275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jan 2000-Cell
TL;DR: This work has been supported by the Department of the Army and the National Institutes of Health, and the author acknowledges the support and encouragement of the National Cancer Institute.
Abstract: We wish to thank Terry Schoop of Biomed Arts Associates, San Francisco, for preparation of the figures, Cori Bargmann and Zena Werb for insightful comments on the manuscript, and Normita Santore for editorial assistance. In addition, we are indebted to Joe Harford and Richard Klausner, who allowed us to adapt and expand their depiction of the cell signaling network, and we appreciate suggestions on signaling pathways from Randy Watnick, Brian Elenbas, Bill Lundberg, Dave Morgan, and Henry Bourne. R. A. W. is a Ludwig Foundation and American Cancer Society Professor of Biology. His work has been supported by the Department of the Army and the National Institutes of Health. D. H. acknowledges the support and encouragement of the National Cancer Institute. Editorial policy has rendered the citations illustrative but not comprehensive.

26,950 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jan 1987-Science
TL;DR: Amplification of the HER-2/neu gene was a significant predictor of both overall survival and time to relapse in patients with breast cancer, and had greater prognostic value than most currently used prognostic factors in lymph node-positive disease.
Abstract: The HER-2/neu oncogene is a member of the erbB-like oncogene family, and is related to, but distinct from, the epidermal growth factor receptor. This gene has been shown to be amplified in human breast cancer cell lines. In the current study, alterations of the gene in 189 primary human breast cancers were investigated. HER-2/neu was found to be amplified from 2- to greater than 20-fold in 30% of the tumors. Correlation of gene amplification with several disease parameters was evaluated. Amplification of the HER-2/neu gene was a significant predictor of both overall survival and time to relapse in patients with breast cancer. It retained its significance even when adjustments were made for other known prognostic factors. Moreover, HER-2/neu amplification had greater prognostic value than most currently used prognostic factors, including hormonal-receptor status, in lymph node-positive disease. These data indicate that this gene may play a role in the biologic behavior and/or pathogenesis of human breast cancer.

11,086 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Dec 2002-Nature
TL;DR: It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration.
Abstract: Recent data have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, tumour cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system, such as selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. These insights are fostering new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to cancer development.

11,085 citations