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Journal ArticleDOI

Sodium-ion batteries: present and future

19 Jun 2017-Chemical Society Reviews (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 46, Iss: 12, pp 3529-3614

TL;DR: Current research on materials is summarized and discussed and future directions for SIBs are proposed to provide important insights into scientific and practical issues in the development of S IBs.

AbstractEnergy production and storage technologies have attracted a great deal of attention for day-to-day applications. In recent decades, advances in lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology have improved living conditions around the globe. LIBs are used in most mobile electronic devices as well as in zero-emission electronic vehicles. However, there are increasing concerns regarding load leveling of renewable energy sources and the smart grid as well as the sustainability of lithium sources due to their limited availability and consequent expected price increase. Therefore, whether LIBs alone can satisfy the rising demand for small- and/or mid-to-large-format energy storage applications remains unclear. To mitigate these issues, recent research has focused on alternative energy storage systems. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as the best candidate power sources because sodium is widely available and exhibits similar chemistry to that of LIBs; therefore, SIBs are promising next-generation alternatives. Recently, sodiated layer transition metal oxides, phosphates and organic compounds have been introduced as cathode materials for SIBs. Simultaneously, recent developments have been facilitated by the use of select carbonaceous materials, transition metal oxides (or sulfides), and intermetallic and organic compounds as anodes for SIBs. Apart from electrode materials, suitable electrolytes, additives, and binders are equally important for the development of practical SIBs. Despite developments in electrode materials and other components, there remain several challenges, including cell design and electrode balancing, in the application of sodium ion cells. In this article, we summarize and discuss current research on materials and propose future directions for SIBs. This will provide important insights into scientific and practical issues in the development of SIBs.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Pumped-Storage of Water: It is the most efficient; it is developed in very large scale capacity storage facilities which require specific sites; nevertheless, in the future due to its long lifetime it will play a significant role for intermediate time storage of a few hours to several days, and even for intermediate scale capacity energy storage. Electrochemical Energy Storage in Batteries: It is now used locally in some places that are not connected to the electricity network and on the smart grids for frequency regulation or small peak production shifts. Examples include sodium sulfur batteries (NaS) which are used in Japan; redox flow batteries under development, and some large scale lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) that are used in specific places. Storage via Hydrogen: The development of hydrogen as a way of using fuel cells is considered and seems very interesting from the pollution point of view at the local scale. From the technical point of view, most of the problems are almost solved. Nevertheless, hydrogen has to be produced and stored; and in this case, the yield is quite low, similar to that of the internal combustion engine. Electricity storage via hydrogen requires water electrolysis, H2 gas storage, and electricity production in fuel cells, all of which leads to a low efficiency and therefore, significant energy loss during electricity storage.

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Feng Zou1, Yu-Ming Chen1, Kewei Liu1, Wenfeng Liang1, Yu Zhu1 
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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2011-Science
TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

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Journal Article
TL;DR: The transport properties, which are closely related to those of carbon nanotubes, are dominated by the single epitaxial graphene layer at the silicon carbide interface and reveal the Dirac nature of the charge carriers.
Abstract: Ultrathin epitaxial graphite was grown on single-crystal silicon carbide by vacuum graphitization. The material can be patterned using standard nanolithography methods. The transport properties, which are closely related to those of carbon nanotubes, are dominated by the single epitaxial graphene layer at the silicon carbide interface and reveal the Dirac nature of the charge carriers. Patterned structures show quantum confinement of electrons and phase coherence lengths beyond 1 micrometer at 4 kelvin, with mobilities exceeding 2.5 square meters per volt-second. All-graphene electronically coherent devices and device architectures are envisaged.

4,427 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The status of ambient temperature sodium ion batteries is reviewed in light of recent developments in anode, electrolyte and cathode materials. These devices, although early in their stage of development, are promising for large-scale grid storage applications due to the abundance and very low cost of sodium-containing precursors used to make the components. The engineering knowledge developed recently for highly successful Li ion batteries can be leveraged to ensure rapid progress in this area, although different electrode materials and electrolytes will be required for dual intercalation systems based on sodium. In particular, new anode materials need to be identified, since the graphite anode, commonly used in lithium systems, does not intercalate sodium to any appreciable extent. A wider array of choices is available for cathodes, including high performance layered transition metal oxides and polyanionic compounds. Recent developments in electrodes are encouraging, but a great deal of research is necessary, particularly in new electrolytes, and the understanding of the SEI films. The engineering modeling calculations of Na-ion battery energy density indicate that 210 Wh kg−1 in gravimetric energy is possible for Na-ion batteries compared to existing Li-ion technology if a cathode capacity of 200 mAh g−1 and a 500 mAh g−1 anode can be discovered with an average cell potential of 3.3 V.

3,279 citations